9 - BIO 94 NOTES (1/29/09) Bacteria and Archaea Nitrogen...

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BIO 94 NOTES (1/29/09) Bacteria and Archaea Nitrogen cycle o All organism require nitrogen (N) to synthesize proteins and nucleic acids o Although molecular nitrogen (N2) is abundant in the atmosphere, most organisms cannot use it directly o The only organism capable of converting molecular nitrogen to ammonia, a process called nitrogen fixation, are specific bacteria o How do biologists study bacteria and archaea? o Our understanding of the domains Bacteria and Archaea is advancing more rapidly now than at any time during the past hundred years o Using enrichment cultures Enrichment cultures are based on establishing a specific set of growing conditions – temp, lighting, substrate, types of available food, etc. Cells that thrive under the specific conditions will increase in numbers enough to be isolated and studied in detail Enrichment cultures isolate large populations of cells o direction sequencing Direct sequencing is the new technique for documenting the presence of bacteria and archaea that have never been seen because they cannot be grown in cure culture
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it is based on identifying phylogenic species – populations have
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9 - BIO 94 NOTES (1/29/09) Bacteria and Archaea Nitrogen...

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