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26 - BIO LECTURE NOTES Mutualism provides nutrition etc...

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BIO LECTURE NOTES (3/11/09) Mutualism provides nutrition, etc. Mutualisms may involve the reciprocal exchange of essential nutrients o Ex: Mycorrhizal fungi o Pests: Attini, Lepiotaceae, Escovopsis Mutualisms may involve the transportation of individuals or gametes o Hummingbirds transfer pollen o Jays collect acorns and bury them in the soil Mutualism may involve providing protection from predators or competitors o Oropendula – birds that live in the tropics in Central America o Brood parasites o Cowbirds – deposit own eggs in Oropendula nests in hopes that Oropendula birds would raise their young o Botflies – will lay eggs on Oropendula; cowbirds will eat the botfly larvae on Oropendula o Bees – keep away botflies; now cowbirds are a negative parasite in this association Mutualisms often evolve as a direct consequence of negative interactions between two or more species o (-) Moth deposits eggs in the plant ovaries but does not fertilize them (+) Few seeds are produced and few moth larvae live o (+) The moth lays eggs and fertilizes the plant ovaries (++) The plant now produces many more seeds; consequently, many
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