1- cell physiology - Cell Physiology Click to edit Master...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecturer: Dr. R. Ahangari University of Central Florida, Orlando Human Physiology by S.I. Fox and Cell Physiology
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Cell: *Cells are the basic structural and functional units of life. All living organisms are cellular in nature, e.g.: amoebas with only one cell or human, animals and big plants with many cells (multicellular). *There are 50 to 100 trillion cells in the human body.
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Click to edit Master subtitle style General structure of a cell: *Cells have 3 main regions: 1- Plasma membrane – outer layer 2- Cytoplasm - internal 3- Nucleus – middle layer
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Plasma membrane (plasmalemma): Is the outer thin and flexible membrane of the cell which separates the intracellular from extracellular compartment (fluid).
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Structure of the plasma membrane: Membrane is made of a double layer of lipids such as phospholipids, cholesterol and glycolipids, within which proteins are embedded. phospholipid hydrophobic
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Phospholipids: Are the most abundant lipids in the plasma membrane. The heads are hydrophilic (attached to water, the main constituent of intra- and extracellular fluids) and lie along the inner and outer face of the membrane. The tails are hydrophobic (avoid water and line up in the center of the membrane).
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Membrane proteins: 1- Integral proteins 2- peripheral proteins Integral proteins: Are the most abundant proteins in the membrane, most extend entirely through the membrane (transmembrane) but some protrude from one side of the membrane. Could act as receptors. Peripheral proteins: are mainly on the cytoplasmic side. They support the cytoplasmic side of the membrane by a network of filaments. Glycocalyx (sugar covering or cell coat): is a short chain of carbohydrate (sugars) projected out from the external surface of glycoproteins or glycolipids. This functions in cell-to-cell binding and recognition.
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Glycocalyx
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Functions of the plasma membrane: 1- Serves as an external cell barrier against substances and forces outside the cell. 2- Externally facing proteins act as receptors (for hormones, neurotransmitters etc.) and in cell to cell recognition. 3- Acts in transport of substances into or out of the cell. The membrane is a selective permeable barrier, allowing some substances to pass between intra- and extracellular fluids while preventing others.
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Movements of the substances across the plasma membrane: 1- Passive process: substances can pass freely through the lipid bilayer down their concentration gradient i.e.: from more concentrated region to the less concentrated region. No energy (ATP) is needed. Diffusion:
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2009 for the course PCB 3703C taught by Professor Morgan during the Fall '07 term at University of Central Florida.

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1- cell physiology - Cell Physiology Click to edit Master...

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