2-cell physiology - Cell Physiology 2 Click to edit Master...

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Lecturer: Dr. R. Ahangari University of Central Florida, Orlando Human Physiology by S.I. Fox and Cell Physiology 2
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Click to edit Master subtitle style The nucleus: Nucleus is the control center of the cell and contains genetic materials (DNA ), which directs the cell’s activities by providing the instructions for protein synthesis. Most cells have one nucleus in the center, some have multiple nuclei e.g.: skeletal muscle, however, mature red blood cells have no nucleus (anucleate) at all. Main parts of the nucleus: 1- Nuclear envelope 2- Chromatin and chromosomes 3- Nucleoli
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Nuclear envelope: Surrounds the nucleus and has pores and is continuous with endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleolus: Is a dark staining body within the nucleus. It contains parts of chromosomes and is cell’s ribosome producing machine (has genes that code for rRNA). Chromatin and chromosomes: Chromatin is the granular thread-like material in the nucleus composed of DNA and histone proteins . DNA constitute the genes. genetic code is copied onto mRNA in a process called transcription .
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Click to edit Master subtitle style Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): *DNA molecule in chromatin is a double helix chains of nucleotide molecules. *Nucleotides consist of sugar, phosphate and one of four bases: thymine (T), adenine (A), cytosine (C) or guanine (G), which bind to hold the DNA helix together like a ladder. *DNA helix wraps around clusters of eight spherical proteins called histones , which regulate gene expression and transcription. *Each cluster of DNA and histones is called a nucleosome. Chromosomes: *Chromosome contains a single, very long molecule of DNA. There are 46 chromosomes in a typical human cell. *Chromatin is distributed in chromosomes.
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The Cell Life Cycle: The cell life cycle is a series of changes a cell experiences from the time it forms until it reproduces itself. The cycle has two major periods: 1- Interphase, in which the cell grows and carries on its usual activities, 2- Cell division (mitotic phase), during this period, the cell divides into 2 cells. *Cell division is essential for growth and
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2-cell physiology - Cell Physiology 2 Click to edit Master...

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