Chapter11 - Chapter11 SOLUTIONS 11.1 The Composition of...

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Chapter11: SOLUTIONS 11.1 The Composition of Solutions a. Solution is a homogeneous mixture b. Solute: the substance being dissolved in a solution (usually present in the lesser amount) Ex: NaCl c. Solvent: the substance doing the dissolving the solvent (usually present in the greater amount) Ex: H 2 O d. Electrolytes: electrolyte solutions contain a solute that dissociates or ionizes in a solvent, producing ions. The presence of ions allows electric current to pass through the solution. e. Structure and Solubility: Substances differ widely in their solubilities. A general rule is “like dissolves like” when the bonding within a solvent is similar to the bonding a solute, the solvent will dissolve the solute. Polar covalent solvents dissolve polar covalent or ionic solutes, while nonpolar covalent solvents dissolve nonpolar covalent solutes. 11.2 The Solution Process a. Formation of intermolecular forces: “energy” (Sorry, I could not find this one in the book) b. Entropy: measure of randomness Ex: solid
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