the “spore” is most fundamental reprod cell, the dispersal stage
in fungal life cycle,
If a spore falxxxxxxxxxls on food source n is able to germinate, a mycelium begins
to form. As the fungus expands, “hyphae” grow in direction in which food is most
abundant. If food begins to run out, mycelium makes spores, which r dispersed by
wind or animals.
Spore production allows starving mycelia to disperse offspring to new habitats.
Process of sexual reproduction begins when hyphae from two indivs fuse to form a
hybrid “hypha” Fertilization occurs in 2 steps: fusion of cells, and fusion of nuclei
from the fused cells.
“Plasmogamy” occurs when the
of different individuals fuse. If the
nuclei remain independent, the mycelium becomes heterokaryotic. (N+N)
“Karyogamy” occurs when the
of diff indivs fuse into a zygote (2n)
r the ONLY fungi that produce gametes (n) and exhibit
alternation of generations
“Zygomycota” form “
” that produce a spore-forming structure
Basidiomycota have reproductive structures w/ many spore producing basidia
10. Ascomycota have reproductive structures w/ many spore-producing “asci”
11. Most fungi can reproduce both asexual and sexual
. During aasexual, sporeforming
structures r produced by a haploid mycelium, and spores r made by “mitosis”
12. “zygomycota” r primarily soil dwellers. Many r saprophytes
(live in dead matter),
some r parasitic, some predatory
13. AMF are members of Glomeromycota and penetrate the walls of plant roots. Thye
have spores underground and are difficult to grow in lab, so it’s not well known
Ch32: Intro to animals (lecture 8)
Animals r species-rich and have a “basic body plan”
which differs in # of tissues
observed in embryos, symmetry, presence of body cavity
, n the way in which early
embryonic development proceed.
Recent phylogenetic analyses of animals have shown that there were 3 fundamental
splits as animals diversified, resulting in 2 protostome grps (Lophotrochozoa
and the deuterostomes
Within major grps of animals, evolutionary diversification
was based on innovative
. Most animals get nutrients by eating other organisms, n
and most animals move under their own power @ some pt.
Methods of sexual repro vary widely, many undergo metamorphosis during life
animals ARE: multiceullar, “heterotrophs” which ingest their food, and move under
their own power. Over 1.2 known animal species
animals r “consumers” on upper level so ffood chains. Human’s closest relatives
animal traits: they have no cell walls, but an extensive extracellular matrix, ONLY
ones w/ “muscle and nerve tissue”, NO altern of generation, diploid adults
34 animal phyla, differences in mouths and limbs, for eating and moving.