FUNGIhome - Ch31: Fungi (continued) 1. the spore is most...

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1. the “spore” is most fundamental reprod cell, the dispersal stage in fungal life cycle, 2. If a spore falxxxxxxxxxls on food source n is able to germinate, a mycelium begins to form. As the fungus expands, “hyphae” grow in direction in which food is most abundant. If food begins to run out, mycelium makes spores, which r dispersed by wind or animals. 3. Spore production allows starving mycelia to disperse offspring to new habitats. 4. Process of sexual reproduction begins when hyphae from two indivs fuse to form a hybrid “hypha” Fertilization occurs in 2 steps: fusion of cells, and fusion of nuclei from the fused cells. 5. “Plasmogamy” occurs when the cytoplasms of different individuals fuse. If the nuclei remain independent, the mycelium becomes heterokaryotic. (N+N) 6. “Karyogamy” occurs when the nuclei of diff indivs fuse into a zygote (2n) 7. Chytridiomycota r the ONLY fungi that produce gametes (n) and exhibit alternation of generations 8. “Zygomycota” form “ yoked hyphae ” that produce a spore-forming structure (zygosporangium) 9. Basidiomycota have reproductive structures w/ many spore producing basidia 10. Ascomycota have reproductive structures w/ many spore-producing “asci” 11. Most fungi can reproduce both asexual and sexual . During aasexual, sporeforming structures r produced by a haploid mycelium, and spores r made by “mitosis” (asexual) 12. “zygomycota” r primarily soil dwellers. Many r saprophytes (live in dead matter), some r parasitic, some predatory 13. AMF are members of Glomeromycota and penetrate the walls of plant roots. Thye have spores underground and are difficult to grow in lab, so it’s not well known Ch32: Intro to animals (lecture 8) 1. Animals r species-rich and have a “basic body plan” which differs in # of tissues observed in embryos, symmetry, presence of body cavity , n the way in which early embryonic development proceed. 2. Recent phylogenetic analyses of animals have shown that there were 3 fundamental splits as animals diversified, resulting in 2 protostome grps (Lophotrochozoa n Ecdysozoa) and the deuterostomes 3. Within major grps of animals, evolutionary diversification was based on innovative . Most animals get nutrients by eating other organisms, n and most animals move under their own power @ some pt. 4. Methods of sexual repro vary widely, many undergo metamorphosis during life 5. animals ARE: multiceullar, “heterotrophs” which ingest their food, and move under their own power. Over 1.2 known animal species 6. animals r “consumers” on upper level so ffood chains. Human’s closest relatives 7. animal traits: they have no cell walls, but an extensive extracellular matrix, ONLY ones w/ “muscle and nerve tissue”, NO altern of generation, diploid adults 8. 34 animal phyla, differences in mouths and limbs, for eating and moving. 9.
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FUNGIhome - Ch31: Fungi (continued) 1. the spore is most...

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