AP Biology Notes - Ch. 4, 5, & 8 - Copying someone...

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“Copying someone else’s work in considered plagiarism and an honor code violation. The work completed in this study guide is my own. ” ____________________________ Shreya Maddireddy Carpenter 8/10/09 TEXTBOOK ASSIGNMENT Chapter 4 1. Explain how carbon’s electron configuration determines the kinds and number of bonds that carbon will form. Carbon has a total of 6 electrons with 2 electrons in the first electron shell and 4 valence electrons in the second shell. Carbon does not fill its valence shell by losing or gaining 4 electrons. Instead, it completes the shell by sharing electrons with other atoms using four covalent bonds, this is called tetravalence. Tetravalence allows large, complex molecules possible. The shape is of a tetrahedron with bond angles of 109.5°. When two carbon atoms are joined by a double bond, all bonds around those carbons are in the same plane and have a flat, three-dimensional structure. The electron configuration of carbon makes it capable of forming covalent bonds with many different elements. 2. Describe how carbon skeletons may vary, and explain how this variation contributes to the diversity and complexity of organic molecules. The carbon skeletons may differ in length; they could be straight, branched, or arranged in closed rings. They can also include double bonds. Atoms of other elements may bond to the atoms of the carbon skeleton. There are many different types of carbon isomers. Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures which causes different chemical properties. For example, butane and isobutane have the same molecular formula, C 4 H 10 , but they each have a different skeleton and thus serve different purposes. 3. List and distinguish among the 3 types of isomers. Isomers are compounds that have the same number of atoms of the same elements but different structures and, thus, different chemical properties. Structural Isomers – have the same molecular formula, but the atoms differ in their covalent arrangement. For example, butane and isobutane have the same molecular formula, C 4 H 10 , but different skeletons. Geometric isomers – are compounds with the same covalent partnerships, but they differ in the spatial arrangement molecules, or groups of atoms, attached to a a C = C double bond. Enantiomers – are molecules that are mirror images of each other. They differ in the spatial arrangement around an asymmetric carbon. It is asymmetric because it is attached to four different atoms or groups of atoms. 4. Name the major functional groups and describe the chemical properties of the organic molecules in which they occur. Create a chart which includes the functional group name, functional group, chemical properties, and example. (Remember 1 set of information per box).
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