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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION: THEMES IN THE STUDY OF LIFE OUTLINE I. Life’s Hierarchical Order A. The living world is a hierarchy, with each level of biological structure building on the level below it B. Each level of biological structure has emergent properties C. Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function D. The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA E. Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization F. Organisms are open systems that interact continuously with their environments G. Regulatory mechanisms ensure a dynamic balance in living systems II. Evolution, Unity, and Diversity A. Diversity and unity are the dual faces of life on Earth B. Evolution is the core theme of biology III. Science as a Process A. Testable hypotheses are the hallmarks of the scientific process B. Science and technology are functions of society C. Biology is a multidisciplinary adventure OBJECTIVES After reading this chapter and attending lecture, the student should be able to: 1. Briefly describe unifying themes that pervade the science of biology. 2. Diagram the hierarchy of structural levels in biology. 3. Explain how the properties of life emerge from complex organization. 4. Describe seven emergent properties associated with life. 5. Distinguish between holism and reductionism. 6. Explain how technological breakthroughs contributed to the formulation of the cell theory and our current knowledge of the cell. 7. Distinguish between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. 8. Explain, in their own words, what is meant by "form fits function." 9. List the five kingdoms of life and distinguish among them. 10. Briefly describe how Charles Darwin's ideas contributed to the conceptual framework of biology. 11. Outline the scientific method. 12. Distinguish between inductive and deductive reasoning. 13. Explain how science and technology are interdependent.
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2 Chapter 1 Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life KEY TERMS emergent property holism evolution control group population reductionism natural selection variable community prokaryotic scientific method experimental group ecosystem eukaryotic hypothesis deductive reasoning biome taxonomy inductive reasoning scientific theory biogenesis LECTURE NOTES Biology, the study of life, is a human endeavor resulting from an innate attraction to life in its diverse forms (E.O. Wilson's biophilia ). The science of biology is enormous in scope. It reaches across size scales from submicroscopic molecules to the global distribution of biological communities. It encompasses life over huge spans of time from contemporary organisms to ancestral life forms stretching back nearly four billion years. As a science, biology is an ongoing process.
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