PSYCH001 FIRST EXAM - 1 PSYCH001- First Exam Chapter 1:...

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1 PSYCH001- First Exam Chapter 1: Introduction Definition and Goals of Psychology psychology- the scientific study of mind and behavior scientific- based on observation mind- our private inner experience of perceptions, thoughts, memories, and feelings behavior- observable actions of human beings goals- describe behavior, understand and predict behavior, optimize behavior empiricism- the idea that knowledge comes directly from experience Historical Influences on Psychological Thought Nativism- the philosophical view that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn Nature(innate) via Nurture(experience)- many characteristics do have inherited components (intelligence, personality). experience shapes how these characteristics develop (educational experiences) Structuralism- the analysis of the basic elements that constitute the mind; analyze elements of sensations and feelings (sensation of taste is made up of salty, bitter, sour, and sweet) Wilhelm Wundt- founded first laboratory devoted exclusively to psychology Systematic Introspection- bring you into a lab and ask you what you were experiencing while you were doing something like eating Functionalism- the study of the purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to their environment; emphasized the purpose of behavior and consciousness (what is the goal or purpose of memory) William James- Harvard professor, wrote The Principles of Psychology (1890) Greatly influenced by the works of Darwin on the adaptive mental process (evolved to help people solve problems and increase chance of survival) Behaviorism- an approach that advocates that psychologists restrict themselves to the scientific study of objectively observable behavior (Stimulus- Response Psychology) special influence on animal behavior John B. Watson- introspection far too subjective and varies by individual. wanted to focus on observable replicable measurements. influenced by Pavlov’s stimulus- response experiments. Based behaviorism on S-R stimulus- sensory input from the environment response- an action or physiological change elicited by a stimulus B.F. Skinner- investigated the way an animal learns by interacting with its environment
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2 reinforcement- the consequences of a behavior that determine whether it will be more likely that the behavior will occur again (Skinner Box) Psychoanalysis- a therapeutic approach that focuses on bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness to better understand psychological disorders Psychoanalytic Theory- Sigmund Freud’s approach to understanding human behavior that emphasizes the importance of unconscious mental processes in shaping feelings, thoughts, and behaviors Freud was trained as a medical doctor and proposed that some physical problems have psychological causes Humanism- an approach to understanding human nature that emphasizes the positive potential of human beings. rejects the pessimistic view of Freud
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This note was uploaded on 11/16/2009 for the course PSYCH 001 taught by Professor Hyland during the Spring '08 term at Lehigh University .

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PSYCH001 FIRST EXAM - 1 PSYCH001- First Exam Chapter 1:...

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