PSYCH001- Third Exam

PSYCH001- Third Exam - 1 PSYCH001- Third Exam Chapter 9: In...

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1 PSYCH001- Third Exam Chapter 9: Intelligence Criteria for Good Psychological Tests standardization- practice of keeping the testing, scoring, and interpretation procedures consistent across all administrations of a test norms- reliability(test-retest)- tests produce similar results with repeated administration to the same person o inter-rater reliability- getting the same result no matter who gives the test o test-retest reliability- getting the same result when the person is retested later validity- how well a test measures what it is supposed to measure o content validity- does it sample broadly from the domain of interest o predictive validity- does it predict a future outcome such as job or school success The History of Intelligence Testing Galton- carried first attempt to develop an intelligence test(1880s); motivated by Darwin and eugenics; conducted batteries of sensory, physical, intellectual test; scores were poor predictors of real world performance Binet- French psychologists Binet and Simon developed the first IQ test in 1904 Wechsler- developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Stanford-Binet and WAIS test brought to US in 1916; still used to test children’s IQ; professional IG test administered by a trained psychologist WAIS- Wechsler wanted to develop a test appropriate for adults that was not solely dependent on language; WAIS has performance as well as verbal subtests; IG scores are derived from norms Reliability and Validity of IQ Tests inter-rater reliability- high due to use of standard procedures test-retest reliability- not unusual for scores to vary up until about age 10 high reliability among adults (r=0.9) different IQ tests such as WAIS and Stanford-Binet correlate with each other. tend to correlate well with school performance, but not as well with broader measures of how a person adapts to environments Influences on IQ genetic- compare IQ scores of twins separated through adoption o identical twins tend to have more similar IQs than fraternal twins environmental- environment and educational opportunity has a role; IQ scores are affected by
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2 expectations for performance. these expectations are shaped by culture Ethical Issues in Test Use access to services, labeling, stereotype threat, and test bias all tie into environmental bias Other Important Concepts Spearman’s factor- general intelligence factor that underlies performance on a variety of mental tests fluid intelligence- ability to solve problems, reason, and remember crystallized intelligence- knowledge and abilities acquired as a result of experience Gardner’s multiple intelligences- musical, bodily- kinesthetic, logical- mathematical, linguistic, spatial, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory of Intelligence o Componential- “analytic”- comparing, analyzing, and evaluating; correlates best with IQ tests o Experiential- “creative”- inventing or designing
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PSYCH001- Third Exam - 1 PSYCH001- Third Exam Chapter 9: In...

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