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311cFall09Homework_Lecture24Suppliment_key - energy of the...

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Intro Bio I (BIO 311C), Fall 2009, Dr. Bushart Homework for lecture 24 1. Are fatty acid lipids more reduced or more oxidized as compared to carbohydrates? Explain how you can make that determination. Fatty acids are more reduced. They have more C-H bonds which have the electrons further away from the carbon than C-O bonds do, so they’re on the “gain” side of the electron movement (GER or RIG). The alternative way to look at it is that lipids have more hydrogens on their carbons (C-H vs C-O again) and reduced molecules tend to pick up hydrogens along with their electrons. 2. If an oxidation reaction is always accompanied by a reduction reaction (hence the term “redox”), how can we ever get useful energy? It may be helpful to consider the free energy of products and reactants. The energy stored by the reduction half is much less than the total released by the oxidation half so energy is available. Another way to look at it is that the sum total
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Unformatted text preview: energy of the products is still lower than the some total energy of the reactants even if one of the molecules is gaining some energy. 3. Photosynthesis uses an electron carrier whose two forms are NADP + and NADPH. Light energy is stored by forming NADPH. a. Explain using three different observations if the NADPH form is reduced or oxidized. NAPPH is reduced. • Molecules gaining hydrogens tend to be reduced and NADPH has gained a hydrogen as compared to NADP+. • Hydrogen carry electrons with them, and a gain of electrons is a reduction reaction (GER/RIG). • Reduction reactions tend to increase potential energy, and here we have stated that light energy is stored which would cause an increase in potential energy. b. Is NADP + an electron acceptor or is it an electron donor? NADPH? NADP+ is an acceptor and NADPH would act later as an electron donor....
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