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311cFall09Midterm2Review_Key - Intro Bio I(BIO 311c Fall...

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Intro Bio I (BIO 311c), Fall 2009, Dr. Bushart For Midterm #2 Topic list Amino acids o Structure and side chains o Polymerization o 4 levels of structure o Catalysis and enzymes o Protein antibiotics Nucleic acids o 3-part structure of nucleotides o Polymerization “Activated” nucleotides o DNA structure o RNA structure Enzymatic activities Carbohydrates o Structure Optical isomers (glucose vs galactose; α-glucose vs β-glucose) o Polymers Common polymers and their structures Lipids o Structure Fats, steroids, phospholipids o Phospholipid bilayers Organization Fluidity Selective permeability Membrane proteins o Cell membranes (lipid bilayers + proteins) Transport proteins Facilitated diffusion o Channel proteins o Carrier proteins Active transport o Pumps o Trans fats and detergents 1. Cholera bacteria produce toxins which interfere with intestinal cells, eventually resulting in diarrhea (watery stools) and dehydration. Specifically, the toxin
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