ME364 MET KS Ch2 - Chapter 2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing,...

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Chapter 2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing, and Manufacturing Properties of Materials
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Relative Mechanical Properties of Materials
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Tensile-test Specimen and Machine Figure 2.1 (a) A standard tensile-test specimen before and after pulling, showing original and final gage lengths. (b) A tensile-test sequence showing different stages in the elongation of the specimen. Engineering Stess, σ = P A o Engineering Strain, e = l l o l o Modulus of Elasticity, E = e True stress, = P A True strain, ε =ln l l o Poisson's Ratio : Strain al Longitudin Strain Lateral = ν
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σ P
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σ P
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Tension Test Stress-strain Curve Figure 2.2 A typical stress-strain curve obtained from a tension test, showing various features
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Measures of Ductility DUCTILITY: Extend of plastic deformation that the material undergoes before fracture. Two common measures of ductility: 100 ) ( Elongation Total × = o o f l l l 100 ) ( Area of Reduction × = o f o A A A
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Mechanical Properties of Materials
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Loading and Unloading of Tensile-test Specimen Figure 2.3 Schematic illustration of the loading and the unloading of a tensile-test specimen. Note that, during unloading, the curve follows a path parallel to the original elastic slope.
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Elongation vs. Tensile-reduction Figure 2.4 Approximate relationship between elongation and tensile reduction of area for various groups of metals
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Tension and Stress Curves Figure 2.5 (a) Load elongation curve in tension testing of a stainless steel specimen. (b) Engineering stress-engineering strain curve, drawn from the data in Fig. 2.5a. (c) True stress-true strain curve, drawn from the data in Fig. 2.5b. Note that this curve has a positive slope, indicating that the material is becoming stringer as it is strained. (d)
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ME364 MET KS Ch2 - Chapter 2 Mechanical Behavior, Testing,...

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