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ME364 MET KS Ch14 - Parts to be made Chapter 14 Forging of...

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1 Chapter 14 Forging of Metals Force Closed Die Parts to be made
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2 Forged Components Figure 14.1 (a) Schematic illustration of the steps involved in forging a knife. (b) Landing-gear components for the C5A and C5B transport aircraft, made by forging. (c) General view of a 445 MN (50,000 ton) hydraulic press. Pre-shaped part for forging Shape after forging Excess material trimmed
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3 FORGING is a process in which the workpiece is shaped by compressive forces applied through various dies and tooling. Dates back to 4000 BC. Forging produces discrete parts. Metal flows in a die and material's grain structure could be controoled. Therefore, forged parts have good strength, and tughness and are very reliable for highly stressed and critical applications. Forging may be carried out at room temperature (cold forging), or at elevated temperatures (hot forging)
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4 Cold forging requires higher forces and the workpiece material should have sufficient ductility at room temperature to undergo the necessary deformation without cracking (may need several separate forging steps). Cold forged parts have a good surface finish and dimensional accuracy . Hot forging requires lower forces , but the dimensional accuracy and surface finish of the parts are not as high as in cold forging. Forgings generally are subjected to additional finishing operations.
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5 Microstructure as a Function of Manufacturing Method Figure 14.2 Schematic illustration of a part made by three different processes showing grain flow. (a) Casting by the processes described in Chapter 11. (b) Machining form a blank (c) Forging. Each process has its own advantages and limitations regarding external and internal characteristics, material properties, dimensional accuracy, surface finish, and the economics of production.
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6 Characteristics of Forging
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7 Upsetting with Barreling Figure 14.3 (a) Solid cylindrical billet upset between two flat dies. (b) Uniform deformation of the billet without friction. (c) Deformation with friction. Note the barreling of the billet caused by friction forces at the billet-die interfaces. Forging force, F = Y f π r 2 1 + 2 μ r 3 h
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8 Cogging Operation on a Rectangular Bar Figure 14.4 (a) Schematic illustration of a cogging operation on a rectangular bar. Blacksmiths use this process to reduce the thickness of bars by hammering the part on an anvil.
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