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1Disorders of the Veins and ArteriesJessica HensleyWalden UniversityNURS 6501 Advanced Pathophysiology
2IntroductionIt is basic knowledge that the heart carries blood in the body. This is taught in elementary health education. For Advanced Practice Nurses, the required knowledge is much more extensive. Essentially, the circulatory system delivers oxygen, nutrients, hormones, immune system components, and other substances to body tissues (Huether & McCance, 2017). The heart is a complex organ which is made up of several components. Two of those key components are veins and arteries. Veins have thin walls and areabundant with fibrous connective tissue. There are more veins in the body as opposed to arteries. The main difference in the two is their roles. Veins facilitate a one-way flow to the heart while arteries carry blood away from the heart. In this paper we will be focusing on veins and diseases of veins. Chronic Venous InsufficiencyPathophysiology and Clinical SymptomsChronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a common condition that affects the venous system of the lower extremities. CVI patients have venous hypertension which causes symptoms such as pain, edema, hyperpigmentation, and ulcerations (Eberhardt & Raffetto, 2014). Santler and Goerge (2017) explain that the pathophysiology of CVI and venous hypertension is when the release of vasoactive substances from the endothelium gives rise to the expression of adhesion molecules, chemokines, and inflammatory mediators which causes damage to the endothelial glycocalyx. The glycocalyx may also prevent leukocyte adhesion. Studies have shown that patients with chronic venous disease will have increased collagen in the vessel walls as well as a lower than usual amount of elastin and laminin (Santler & Goerge, 2017). The repetition of venous hypertension and venous stasis causing damage ultimately causesthe veins to struggle to maintain normal venous pressure (Huether & McCance, 2017).