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WP_179 - WORKING PAPER NO 179 H IGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA...

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WORKING PAPER NO. 179 HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: SEIZING THE OPPORTUNITY Sanat Kaul MAY 2006 INDIAN COUNCIL FOR RESEARCH ON INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC RELATIONS Core-6A, 4th Floor, India Habitat Centre, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110 003 Website: www.icrier.org
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HIGHER EDUCATION IN INDIA: SEIZING THE OPPORTUNITY Sanat Kaul MAY 2006 The views expressed in the ICRIER Working Paper Series are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER).
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Contents Foreword ............................................................................................................................... i Acknowledgement ............................................................................................................... ii Section I ................................................................................................................................. 1 Introduction ............................................................................................................... 1 Section II ............................................................................................................................... 3 1. The New Economic Order and the Role of Higher Education ......................... 3 2. Internet in Education ......................................................................................... 3 3. Globalisation and Higher Education ................................................................. 4 4. World Trade Organization (WTO) and Higher Education ............................... 6 5. e-Education ..................................................................................................... 10 6. Academic Community on Globalisation: ........................................................ 13 Section III ............................................................................................................................ 15 7. New Trends in Knowledge Economy ............................................................. 15 8. Advantage India .............................................................................................. 16 9 Mainstreaming India ....................................................................................... 19 10. Structure of Higher Education in India: .......................................................... 21 11. Public Spending on Higher Education: ........................................................... 26 12. Promoting Knowledge-based Economy: The Need ........................................ 27 Section IV ............................................................................................................................ 31 13. Regulation in Higher Education ...................................................................... 31 14. Government Control over Private Education Initiative: Some evidence ........ 34 15. Demand Side ................................................................................................... 35 16. Supply Side .................................................................................................... 36 17. Constraints on Public Funding: .................................................................... 37 18 Private Initiative in Higher Education in India .......................................... 38 Section V ............................................................................................................................. 43 19. International Experience in Financing Higher Education: .............................. 43 Section VI ............................................................................................................................ 53 20. The Challenge ................................................................................................ 53
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21 The Issues ....................................................................................................... 57 22. Towards Privatization of Higher Education in India .......................................... 58 Section VII .......................................................................................................................... 61 23. Recommendations: .......................................................................................... 61 Appendix ............................................................................................................................. 63 References ........................................................................................................................... 66 List of Boxes Box 1: Principal goals in educational services: ..................................................................... 8 Box 2: Academic Community Perception .............................................................................. 9 Box 3: Main features of Indian Higher Education system ................................................... 30 Box 4: Regulatory Framework in India ............................................................................... 33 Box 5: The Manipal Academy ............................................................................................. 39 Box 6: The Private Professional Education Institution (Regulation of Admission & Fixation of Fee) Bill 2005 ........................................................................................ 60
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i Foreword India’s growth in recent years has been led by the services sector. The most noticeable aspect has been the recent big boom in the BPO/KPO sector. This off-shoring trend is certain to continue and India faces the challenge of generating an appropriate supply response to retain its existing advantage. It should be noted that Indian’s spend nearly $4 billion annually to send their children abroad for higher studies and technical training while there is no reason for India not emerging as a global hub for higher education and technical training. The real challenge therefore, is to expand capacities in higher education to keep ahead of the curve of rising domestic and global demand. However, this poses a well known policy dilemma. India has a huge population of uneducated children and the Constitution provides for free and compulsory education up to the age of 14. The country also has the dubious distinction of one of the highest levels of illiteracy in the world. The system of public education at all levels is in advanced stage of disrepair and disarray. Clearly, governments both at the Center and in the States need to allocate far more
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