Electron Transport Chain

Electron Transport Chain - Cytochrome c Reductase Complex...

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Electron Transport Chain (Mitochondrian) Energy (e-) obtained through the transfer of electrons (black arrows) down the ETC is used to pump protons (red arrows) from the mitochondrial matrix into the intermembrane space, creating an electrochemical proton gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane (IMM). This electrochemical proton gradient allows ATP synthase (ATP-ase) to use the flow of H + through the enzyme back into the matrix to generate ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate . I) Complex I (NADH Q reductase : accepts electrons from electron carrier nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and passes them to coenzyme Q ( ubiquinone ; labeled UQ). II) Complex II (Succinate Dehydrogenase) accepts electrons from FADH2 which also passes them to Ubiquinone. III) Complex III: UQ passes electrons to complex III (
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Unformatted text preview: Cytochrome c Reductase Complex which passes them to cytochrome c (cyt c ). Cytochrome C is a protein that can undergo both oxidation and reduction. IV) Cyt c passes electrons to Complex IV ( cytochrome c oxidase ; labeled IV), which uses the electrons and hydrogen ions to reduce molecular oxygen to water . V) Hydrogen falling down it’s gradient through ATP Synthase results in ADP phosphorylation. Why should the electron transport chain have so many components and complex process? The reaction would be fundamentally untamable. Like a dynamite stick, evolution created a multistep harvesting process. Final Acceptor of protons and electrons is oxygen which is reduced. NADH and FADH2 is oxidized. ATP formed by Chemiosmosis using proton-motive force of Hydrogen coming back down its concentration gradient....
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