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LS2-1 Review1 - LS 2 Midterm 1 Review(Ch5-Ch8 A guide I...

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LS 2 Midterm 1 Review (Ch5-Ch8) A guide I) Cells and their environment: label: Cholesterol, Various Membrane Proteins, Channel, Phospholipids, Glycoprotein, Intracellular fluid, Extracellular Fluid, Integral Proteins, and add a Peripheral Protein. a. Cytosol: b. Intracellular Fluid: c. Extracellular Fluid: d. Cytoplasm: II) Plasma Membrane: a. Polar, Hydrophilic Head: Choline, Phosphate, Glycerol b. Tails, Nonpolar, Hydrophilic: Fatty Acid c. Proteins in Membrane: Function as Junctions; Channels and pumps; Chemical Signals i. The association of protein molecules with lipid molecules is NOT covalent. ii. Integral Membrane : proteins have hydrophobic regions of amino acids that penetrate or entirely cross the phospholipid bilayer. iii. Peripheral Membrane Proteins : are found on one side of the membrane. iv. Some proteins are anchored to components of the cytoskeleton or are trapped with regions of lipid rafts. ----specialization of regions
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v. Glycolipid : carbohydrate bound lipid in membrane. vi. Glycoprotein: Carbohydrate covalently bonded to a protein. III) Cell to Cell Junctions: Allow interaction in between neighboring cells. (pg 104) 3Types a. Desmosomes : connects cells tightly together, lowers Tension. b. Tight Junctions : minimize space between cells, prevents paracellular (movement of material between cells) pathways. Lowers leaking. Tanscellular good. Where do we see a lot of Tight Junctions: Kidney and Small Intestine. c. Gap Junctions: Not for structure. Create Synchrony in cells, passes material between cells. Ex: in Heart, Nerve Cells. Pass through Connexons, small molecules can pass large can’t. IV. Membrane Transport: Passive (Facilitated), Active a) Passive/Facilitated: (no energy required) i. Diffusion: movement of molecules from area of high concentration to area of low concentration. (Diffuse through Lipid Bilayer or Ion Channels embedded in membrane). ii. The more lipid-soluble the molecules, the more rapidly it diffuses. Exception is WATER, which can pass through lipid bilayer more readily than its lipid solubility would predict.
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