UNIT_3 - The Pulmonary system has a 3-fold function 1...

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The Pulmonary system has a 3-fold function: 1. oxygenate blood 2. remove CO 2 3. maintain pH
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Compliance of the Lungs -- Ease with which lungs & chest wall expand depends upon elasticity of lungs & surface tension. Some diseases reduce compliance: tuberculosis --- forms scar tissue pulmonary edema --- fluid in lungs & reduced surfactant paralysis --- muscle cannot contract Airway Resistance Resistance to airflow depends primarily upon airway size (diameter). Increase airway diameter by increasing size of chest. Decrease airway diameter by contracting the smooth muscles lining the airways. Resistance increases with increased air viscosity (thick air). Resistance increases with increased airway length (breathe through a tube).
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Breathing Patterns Eupnea = normal quiet breathing Apnea = temporary cessation of breathing Dyspnea =difficult or labored breathing Tachypnea = rapid breathing Diaphragmatic breathing = descent of diaphragm causes stomach to bulge during inspiration Costal breathing = just rib activity involved Coughing = deep inspiration, closure of rima glottidis & strong expiration blasts air out to clear respiratory passages Hiccupping = spasmodic contraction of diaphragm & quick closure of rima glottidis produce sharp inspiratory sound
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Minute Ventilation (V E ) - The volume of air expired by lungs each minute. This is the usual measurement of pulmonary ventilation. V E = tidal volume x breath frequency (expressed as liters/min) Note that V E decreases as the average person ages. Also as the average person ages, their RV increases. Both of these changes in lung function are due to decreasing strength of the muscles involved with breathing (e.g. diaphragm, intercostal muscles, abdominal muscles).
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AVERAGE LUNG VOLUMES IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Function Females Males 1949 1970 1982 1949 1970 1982 Vital Capacity 4.25 4.25 4.05 5.55 5.39 4.92 Residual Volume 1.1 1.71 1.64 1.45 2.04 2.12 Total Lung Capacity 5.36 5.96 5.69 7.00 7.43 7.04 Max Tidal Volume 2.24 2.26 2.23 3.38 3.31 3.23 Max V e (l/min) 92.5 90 88.5 121.00 121.00 114.00 Dead air space 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 The size of a person’s lung volumes and capacities are completely due to their body size. Large people have large lungs and capacities and vice versa.
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Regulation of Respiratory Center Cortical Influences voluntarily alter breathing patterns – limitations are buildup of CO 2 & H+ in blood inspiratory center is stimulated by increase in either if you hold breathe until you faint----breathing will resume
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Chemical Regulation of Respiration Central chemoreceptors in medulla – respond to changes in H+ or pCO 2 – hypercapnia = slight increase in pCO 2 is noticed Peripheral chemoreceptors – respond to changes in H+, pO 2 or pCO 2 aortic body---in wall of aorta carotid bodies--in walls of common carotid arteries
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Respiratory Influences & Reflex Behaviors Quick breathing rate response to exercise input from proprioceptors Inflation Reflex (Hering-Breurer reflex) big deep breaths activates stretch receptors & produces urge to exhale Factors increasing breathing rate emotional anxiety (increased catecholamines),
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