CELL+AND+DNA+SOURCES+OF+VARIABILITY

CELL+AND+DNA+SOURCES+OF+VARIABILITY - PRINCIPLES OF...

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1 I. HEREDITY II. TYPES OF CHROMOSOMES III. MENDEL AND PATTERNS OF INHERITANCE PRINCIPLES OF GENETICS SEX CELLS The cells making up the gametes which originate in the testes of males (i.e. Spermatozoids) and ovaries of females (i.e. Ovum). Sex cells are involved in the transmission of heredity reproduction. SOMATIC CELLS The cells that make up all the specialized tissues (blood, liver, muscle, skin, nerve) of the body. Somatic cells express the consequences of the transmission of heredity. TYPE OF CELLS GENE According to Mendel the morphological traits of plants and animals are controlled by “factors” or genes. ALLELE An allele is an alternate form of gene. For example, a gene can be either A or a GENES AND ALLELES
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2 Genes do not blend ALL CELLS ARISE FROM PRE- EXISTING CELLS SEX CHROMOSOMES Sex chromosomes are located within the nucleus of the sex cells SOMATIC CHROMOSOMES Somatic chromosomes are located within the nucleus of the somatic cells TYPES OF CHROMOSOMES
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3 GENETIC INHERITANCE FOLLOWS RULES A. Dominance B. Segregation C. Independent Assortment MENDEL’S PRINCIPLES OF INHERITANCE The seven traits of peas studied by Mendel
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4 I. PRINCIPLE OF DOMINANCE • When an offspring inherits two different alleles of a gene, one allele is dominant, and its effect can be seen. The allele whose effects are hidden is called recessive.
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CELL+AND+DNA+SOURCES+OF+VARIABILITY - PRINCIPLES OF...

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