3B. Microevolution - 9/20/09 MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS...

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9/20/09 1 MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS MEASURED MICRO EVOLUTION 1. Microevolution 2. Gene Pool and Breeding Population . CAUSES OF MICRO-EVOLUTION 1. Mutation 3. Founder e±±ect 4. Genetic dri±t 5. Bottleneck e±±ect 6. Cultural ±actors 7. Natural selection MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. Kinds o± Natural Selection 3. Application o± the Hardy-Weinberg Equation To Measure Evolution 1. Physiological e±±ects 3. Malaria and the origin o± sickle cell Hb. 4. Cultural Modi²cation MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS MEASURED MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. Kinds of Natural Selection 2. Application of the Hardy-Weinberg Equation To Measure Evolution 1. Physiological e±±ects 3. Malaria and the origin o± sickle cell Hb. 4. Cultural Modi²cation MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Breeding or Gene Pool : The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time. *Micro-evolutionary effects are felt by individuals, but it is the population as a whole that actually evolves. *Evolution is a change in frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population.
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9/20/09 2 MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Breeding or Gene Pool : The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time. *Micro-evolutionary effects are felt by individuals, but it is the population as a whole that actually evolves. *Evolution is a change in frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population. Genes : The units of inheritance. Every individual receives one (dominant or recessive) gene from each parent Alleles : Different versions of the same gene Genotype frequency : A measure of the relative proportions (percentage) of different genotypes within a population. Homozygous: Having the same allele at a given locus on a pair of chromosomes. Heterozygous : Having different alleles at a given locus on a pair of chromosomes. Types of Natural Selection Stabilizing Selection: favors intermediate trait over the extreme trait. Directional Selection : favors one extreme trait over the other extreme trait. Disruptive Selection: favors the extreme trait over the intermediate trait. MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE THE HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM EQUATION TO MEASURE EVOLUTION Godfrey Hardy, an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg , a German physician based on the principles of Mendelian pattern of inheritance of dominant and recessive genes and lows of probability concluded in 1908 that gene pool frequencies are inherently stable if there is no mutation, the population is large, all members of the population mate randomly, there is no migration in or out of the population, and there is no natural selection.
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9/20/09 3 Hardy and Weinberg applied the binomial equation developed which has become known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2009 for the course ANTHRBIO 161 taught by Professor Mitani during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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3B. Microevolution - 9/20/09 MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS...

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