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3B. Microevolution - MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS MEASURED...

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9/20/09 1 MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS MEASURED MICRO EVOLUTION 1. Microevolution 2. Gene Pool and Breeding Population . CAUSES OF MICRO-EVOLUTION 1. Mutation 2. Gene flow & or migration 3. Founder effect 4. Genetic drift 5. Bottleneck effect 6. Cultural factors 7. Natural selection MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. Kinds of Natural Selection 3. Application of the Hardy-Weinberg Equation To Measure Evolution SICKLE CELL HEMOGLOBIN & NATURAL SELECTION 1. Physiological effects 2. Mutation & Genetic inheritance 3. Malaria and the origin of sickle cell Hb. 4. Cultural Modification MICRO-EVOLUTION AND HOW IT IS MEASURED MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE 1. Kinds of Natural Selection 2. Application of the Hardy-Weinberg Equation To Measure Evolution SICKLE CELL HEMOGLOBIN & NATURAL SELECTION 1. Physiological effects 2. Mutation & Genetic inheritance 3. Malaria and the origin of sickle cell Hb. 4. Cultural Modification MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Breeding or Gene Pool : The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time. *Micro-evolutionary effects are felt by individuals, but it is the population as a whole that actually evolves. *Evolution is a change in frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population.
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9/20/09 2 MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE Breeding or Gene Pool : The sum total of genes, with all their variations, possessed by a particular species at a particular time. *Micro-evolutionary effects are felt by individuals, but it is the population as a whole that actually evolves. *Evolution is a change in frequencies of alleles in the gene pool of a population. Genes : The units of inheritance. Every individual receives one (dominant or recessive) gene from each parent Alleles : Different versions of the same gene Genotype frequency : A measure of the relative proportions (percentage) of different genotypes within a population. Homozygous: Having the same allele at a given locus on a pair of chromosomes. Heterozygous : Having different alleles at a given locus on a pair of chromosomes. Types of Natural Selection Stabilizing Selection: favors intermediate trait over the extreme trait. Directional Selection : favors one extreme trait over the other extreme trait. Disruptive Selection: favors the extreme trait over the intermediate trait. MEASURING EVOLUTIONARY CHANGE THE HARDY-WEINBERG EQUILIBRIUM EQUATION TO MEASURE EVOLUTION Godfrey Hardy, an English mathematician, and Wilhelm Weinberg , a German physician based on the principles of Mendelian pattern of inheritance of dominant and recessive genes and lows of probability concluded in 1908 that gene pool frequencies are inherently stable if there is no mutation, the population is large, all members of the population mate randomly, there is no migration in or out of the population, and there is no natural selection.
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9/20/09 3 Hardy and Weinberg applied the binomial equation developed which has become known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium equation . In this equation (p ² + 2pq + q ² = 1), where p is defined as the frequency of the
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