6 - VI BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY PRIMATE BEHAVIOR I EVOLUTION AND...

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1 VI. BEHAVIORAL BEHAVIOR I. EVOLUTION AND SOCIAL BEHAVIOR II. GROUP MEMBERSHIP & SOCIAL ORGANIZATION III. FOOD AVAILABILITY, FOOD DISTRIBUTION AND GROUP SIZE I. EVOLUTIONARY BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY: SOCIOBIOLOGY A. EVOLUTION & BIOLOGICAL ROOTS OF BEHAVIOR B. PROCESS PARENTAL INVESTMENT KIN SELECTION RECIPROCAL ALTRUISM &KIN ALTRUISM C. REPRODUCTIVE STRATEGIES SEXUAL SELECTION R-SELECTION K-SELECTION I. EVOLUTIONARY BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY: SOCIOBIOLOGY DEFINITION Evolutionary behavioral ecology is a field devoted to the study of how evolutionary processes influence social behavior. PREMISE • Genetic and behavioral traits are two distinct expressions of a single evolutionary process Social behavior or behavioral patterns like any other biological trait have evolved through the operation of natural selection. Individuals whose genotype lead to higher reproductive success are fitter & will pass these genes on at a faster rate, so these genes will become fixed in a population.
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2 I. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR PROCESS PARENTAL INVESTMENT: The behavior or the contribution that parents make to the fitness of their offspring (gametes, energy, time, risk) to an offspring at the cost of investing in another offspring. MALES VERSUS FEMALES . Among most primates (and, indeed, most mammals), the female investment is much higher than that of the male. FITNESS: Measure of reproductive success, relative to others in the group, taken as the lifetime contribution of genes to successive generations. I. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR PROCESS: Kin Selection, Altruism and Inclusive fitness INCLUSIVE FITNESS: The personal fitness which an individual actually expresses in its production of adult offspring. Therefore, inclusive fitness includes the individual’s own fitness plus the fitness of each of his her relatives, weighted in proportion of genes shared between them. The closer the biological relationship among relatives when one helps his or her relative, the greater the potential benefits of increasing one’s own fitness I. EVOLUTION AND BEHAVIOR PROCESS: Kin Selection, Altruism and Inclusive fitness KIN SELECTION: The concept of inclusive fitness when applied to genetically related individuals such as sons, brothers, sisters, etc is referred to as kin selection. Thus, kin selection refers to behaviors oriented at increasing the survival of close relatives. For example, Langur females in the group try to prevent a male from killing another mother's infant. This is altruistic behavior is practiced because the females in the group are genetically related.
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3 I. EVOLUTIONARY BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY: SOCIOBIOLOGY PROCES: Kin Selection, Altruism and Inclusive fitness ALTRUISM: Helping others without direct benefit to oneself. RECIPROCAL ALTRUISM :
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6 - VI BEHAVIORAL ECOLOGY PRIMATE BEHAVIOR I EVOLUTION AND...

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