12a.+Homo+sapiens+and+Native+Americans.ppt+[Read-Only]

12a.+Homo+sapiens+and+Native+Americans.ppt+[Read-Only] -...

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11/15/09 1 PATH TO THE HUMAN GRADE HOMINOID-HOMINID STAGE Early Hominids Australopithecines EVOLUTION OF THE GENUS HOMO Homo habilis Homo erectus EMERGENCE OF HOMO SAPIENS Archaic Homo sapiens Anatomically Modern H. sapiens HOMO SAPEINS IN THE NEW WORLD The peopling of the New World HYPOTHESIS ROOTS OF HOMO SAPIENS Recent African Origin Regional Evolution I. THE PATH TO BECOME HUMAN I. THE PEOPLING OF THE NEW WORLD BY THE UPPER PALEOLITHIC PEOPLES I. MIGRATION ROUTES A. First Migration: Beringia land bridge & Pacific coast B. Second Migration: Beringia land bridge & Inland II. LINGUISTIC GROUPS III. BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY IN THE NEW WORLD A. Cranio-Facial Morphology B. ABO-Blood Groups C. Origins of the diversity
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11/15/09 2 FIRST MIGRATION: Beringia land bridge •Occurred about 15,000 to 22,000 years ago. It coincided with the end of the Ice Age . The glaciation trapped water, which lowered the sea level and exposed an area of about 100 km wide and connecting North America & Asia. •This migration occurred using the Beringia land bridge and after crossing it the first Americans traveled into Alaska then into the Mackenzie River Valley, and from there southward, along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains and on into the Dakotas and then further southward. •Excavations in the eastern caves of Chile indicate that they have retained some elements of the generalized hunting, fishing, and foraging economies required in the inter-tidal zone. SECOND MIGRATION: Beringia land bridge & the Pacific Route The second migration occurred 12 to 15,000 years ago through the Bering Strait (today that separates Alaska from Siberia) The second migration also occurred using the Beringia land bridge, but once they crossed the land bridge into the new world the migrants moved down into the Pacific coastal area. F ollowing coastlines the early colonists reached Southern Chile. The sites of Monte Verde Verde &Taima-Taima gives radiocarbon dates indicating that may have been occupied about 14,000 years ago. THE NEW WORLD The Clovis people moved down into what is now Alberta & split into smaller groups and developed new cultures, eventually reaching the tip of South America about 11,000 years ago. Except for some later-arriving groups, including today's Inuits, or Eskimos, these people would have been the ancestors of nearly all of today's Native Americans. Beringia land bridge
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11/15/09 3 Paleo-American and Archaic Populations Clovis “Big-game Hunters” •Arctic-adapted people from Asia were characterized by a unique stone points known as Clovis Point “Big Game Hunters - named after an archaeological site near Clovis, N.M.
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This note was uploaded on 11/18/2009 for the course ANTHRBIO 161 taught by Professor Mitani during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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12a.+Homo+sapiens+and+Native+Americans.ppt+[Read-Only] -...

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