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12b.+Homo+sapiens+and+Native+Americans.ppt+_Read-Only_ -...

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11/15/09 1 PATH TO THE HUMAN GRADE HOMINOID-HOMINID STAGE Early Hominids Australopithecines EVOLUTION OF THE GENUS HOMO Homo habilis Homo erectus EMERGENCE OF HOMO SAPIENS Archaic Homo sapiens Anatomically Modern H. sapiens HOMO SAPEINS IN THE NEW WORLD The peopling of the New World HYPOTHESIS ROOTS OF HOMO SAPIENS Recent African Origin or Replacement Hypothesis Multi-Regional Evolution Hypothesis Hypothesis for the Origins of Modern Homo sapiens REPLACEMENT OF ARCHAIC HOMO SAPIENS: Based upon Mitochondria DNA & fossil evidence MULTI-REGIONAL EVOLUTION: Based upon fossil evidence & nuclear DNA RESULT OF ADMIXTURE OF NEANDERTHALS AND THE SEVERAL POPULATIONS OF HOMO SAPIENS THAT EV OLVED ABOUT 200,000 TO 160,000 YEARS AGO. REPLACEMENT OF ARCHAIC HOMO SAPIENS: RECENT AFRICAN ORIGIN Mitochondria DNA (mtDNA) is passed on in the cytoplasm of the egg cell. Hence is inherited from the mother only. Differences in mtDNA of individuals sharing the same maternal lineage are due to mutations in mtDNA that accumulate overtime. Mutations occur at constant rate providing a “molecular clock” to estimate how long ago a number of individuals shared the same maternal ancestor.
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