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13.+Diet+and+Brain+Size.ppt+[Read-Only]

13.+Diet+and+Brain+Size.ppt+[Read-Only] - DIET EVOLUTION OF...

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11/15/09 1 DIET & EVOLUTION OF BRAIN SIZE I. BRAIN & BODY SIZE & ENERGY II. EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS OF BRAIN SIZE: FOSSIL EVIDENCE III. HYPOTHESIS TO EXPLAIN THE ATTAINMENT OF RELATIVELY LARGE HUMAN BRAIN IV. OVERVIEW DIET & EVOLUTION OF BRAIN SIZE I. BRAIN & BODY SIZE & ENERGY •Brain Complexity •Allometry of Brain Size Brain Size and Its Metabolic Requirements Functional Areas of the Brain The Cerebral Cortex, which is folded and convoluted, includes the Broca’s area , Wernick’s area, and the panum temporale located on the frontal-temporal-parietal lobes controls the process of language receptiveness and both spoken and gestural aspects of human communication and speech. •The cerebral cortex is composed of gray matter about 2-4 mm (0.080-. 16 in.) thick and contains billions of nerve cell bodies. •The brain stem connect the brain with the spinal cord and the rest of the body. The areas that controls all aspects of vision: 3-D, color vision light & dark vision are located on the occipital lobe
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11/15/09 2 BRAIN SIZE & BODY SIZE: ALLOMETRY ISOMETRIC BODIES The corresponding dimensions are related in the same proportion *Lung size, heart size,blood volume are in direct proportion to body size. ALLOMETRIC BODIES The corresponding dimensions are not related in the same proportion * Bigger animals for their body size do not have heavier skeletons than small animals BRAIN SIZE & BODY SIZE ALLOMETRIC EQUATIONS •Certain proportions change in a regular fashion •Brain size is proportional to body size raised to a power Power Equation •* Y = KX a Y= brain weight K = the scaling factor or proportionality coefficient X = body weight a = the exponent power Logarithmic Equation log Y = a log X + log K BRAIN & BODY SIZE: Primates for their body size have larger brains than other mammals
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11/15/09 3 BRAIN & BODY SIZE: Humans for their body size have larger brains than other primates BRAIN & BODY SIZE: Humans for their body size have larger brains than other primates Chimpanzee Human 485 cc 1,350 cc 1 10 100 1000 BRAIN (gm) 0 0 1 10 100 WEIGHT (kg) Homo Sapiens NON-HUMAN y = 17.56xWt 0.79 BRAIN & BODY SIZE: Humans for their body size have larger brains than other primates
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11/15/09 4 0 500 1000 1500 Estimated brain size (gms) 4.0 3.7 3.2 3.0 2.1 2.0 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.2 0.900 0.700 0.500 0.400 0.500 0.400 0.100 0.95 0.75 0.50 0.45 0.0 Millions of years ago Archaic & modern Homo sapiens Homo erectus Homo habilis Australopithecines BRAIN SIZE: EVOLUTIONARY TRENDS 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 DISTRIBUTION OF RESTING METABOLIC RATE (%) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 BODY WEIGHT (kg) MUSCLE (%) LIVER (%) BRAIN (%) Human Brain and its Metabolic Requirements. The human brain although it represent less than 3% of body weight it
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