1a.+DEVELOPMENT+OF+EVOLUTIONARY+THEORY

1a.+DEVELOPMENT+OF+EVOLUTIONARY+THEORY - HUMANKIND EVOLVING...

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1 HUMANKIND EVOLVING Exploration of the Origins of Human Diversity A. Roberto Frisancho, Ph.D. 2006 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Theological Stage James Usher (1581-1656). John Ray (1627-1705). Scientific Stage Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778). Georges L. Buffon (1707- 1788). Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802). Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834). Alfred Russel Wallace (1823-1913). Charles Darwin (1809-1882). THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY In Europe until the middle of the eighteenth century, nature & all the species that existed were created by God in their present form & these species were therefore fixed & unchanging. James Usher (1581-1656 ). Based on events described in the Bible calculated that the creation of the earth began at noon on Sunday, October 23 of 4004 B.C, which indicated that the earth was just under 6000 years old.
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2 THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY John Ray ( 1627-1705) • All livings things was the deliberate outcome of a God’s Grand Design. • Established the original concept of species & genus. Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778). • In 1758 published the classification system of plants & animals. • Expanded the concept of species & genus given by Ray & added class & order. • Classified humans as animals that belonged to the genus Homo & the order of primates & the species sapiens. THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Georges L. Buffon ( 1707- 1788). • In Natural History (1749) thought that organisms exist in a dynamic, not a static, relationship with the environment. • Species are influenced by local climatic conditions & can therefore change. Erasmus Darwin (1731-1802) •Organisms evolve by natural & sexual selection, protective adaptation, inheritance of acquired characteristics, & even the evolution of mankind. He was never able to explain the process of evolution per se. THE DEVELOPMENT OF EVOLUTIONARY THEORY Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). In1809 he postulated that as result of the natural process of organisms adjusting to their environment new forms could become altered in the face of changing environmental circumstances, resulting in increased or decreased use of certain body parts. Because the modification would make the animal better suited to its habitat, the new trait would be passed on to offspring. This theory is known as the inheritance of acquired characteristics , or the use-disuse theory.
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3 Lamarckian Theory of Acquired Inheritance. The long neck of giraffes is the result of continuous stretching to reach leaves on higher trees. This acquired trait was passed on to offspring, who were born with longer necks. In contrast, according to Darwin-Wallace, as with other animals, there is individual variability in neck length. Hence, those giraffes with short necks could not get enough food from the tall trees and hence had fewer offspring ( b ) while those with long necks ( c ) had an advantage for feeding where trees are tall and had more offspring that survived and over many generations become part of the characteristics of giraffes.
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