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L03 - SUMMARY FROM LAST CLASS Quantization Duality...

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Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 Quantization SUMMARY FROM LAST CLASS Duality wave/particle of light: light can and should be described as both a particle and a wave. • Wave : Oscillating E field with wavelength, frequency, amplitude velocity, phase (all characteristics of a wave). • Particle : Photons have no mass but carry an energy E=h υ and have momentum p=h/ λ . (all characteristics of a particle). Photoelectric effect demonstrates that energy is quantized: energy can only be transferred in packets (quanta). : photon energy (h υ ) transferred to the electron to extract it ( Φ ) and provide kinetic energy (½mv 2 ). : at the stopping voltage V s , no electron have enough kinetic energy to reach the cathode, the current=0. De Broglie’s principle: any moving object with mass m and velocity v can also be described as a wave with a wavelength equal to: This principle is necessary because classical physics failed to explain 2 2 1 v m h e + Φ = υ s e V e v m = 2 2 1 mv h = λ the behavior of small particles. (needed only if λ size of object).
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Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 Atomic spectra: Balmer series QUANTIZED ATOM 1885: Balmer used gas discharged tubes to study the light emitted by gas of atoms (hydrogen, neon, argon, mercury) Gas introduced in a vacuum tube with metal electrodes. High-voltage is applied, gas atoms absorb energy and get “excited”. This results in light emission, the gas glows. Ne Ar Hg Different gas emit different light. This is the principle of neon signs This is called a gas discharge tube .
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Dr. P. Lucas U of A MSE 110 Atomic spectra: Balmer series QUANTIZED ATOM Balmer studied the light emitted by several monoatomic gas, the atomic spectra of gases.
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