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Psychology 2012 - Chapter 6 & 7

Psychology 2012 - Chapter 6 & 7 - Chapter Six...

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Chapter Six Consciousness I. ASPECTS OF CONSCIOUSNESS 1. Consciousness A person's perceptions, thoughts, feelings and memories that are active at a given moment are referred to as consciousness (or awareness). 2. Freud's Views Sigmund Freud proposed preconscious and unconscious levels as well. Memories and thoughts which can be readily accessible to us are in the preconscious mind whereas memories, impulses and desires that are not accessible are in the unconscious mind. Under certain conditions such as in our dreams, or under the influence of certain drugs, or due to slips of the tongue, the unconscious material becomes conscious. 3. Active and Passive Consciousness Active consciousness refers to being active, initiative and seeking, such as problem solving. Passive consciousness refers to being receptive of what is going on such as watching a TV show. Doing well on an exam requires active consciousness. 4. Repression According to Freud, painful memories, especially during childhood years are removed from conscious mind and are placed in the unconscious mind through the process of repression. The person seemingly "forgets" painful memories and needs psychological intervention to bring such memories to conscious mind. 5. Day Dreaming A creative way to relieve boredom is to daydream. However, persisting in this behavior is not healthy. Daydreaming is based on thoughts and images in memory.
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II. SLEEP AND DREAMS 1. Stages of Sleep The sleep schedule changes over the life span. Neonates spend most of the time sleeping. Gradually, they adopt the pattern of their parents' sleep. Each individual function on his/her biological clock , which is also known as circadian rhythm. It more or less indicates when the person goes to sleep and when the person wakes up. Interference with the circadian rhythm is noted when a person travels over several time zones (e.g. going to Europe from USA), a phenomenon known as jet lag. In order to determine the stages of sleep, the electroencephalogram is obtained. This is known as EEG . Following are various stages of sleep: The Awake Stage - If the person engages in the brain activities such as solving problems or listening attentively. EEG demonstrates the beta waves, which are short and compact. The Relaxed Stage - When a person begins to relax with his/her eyes closed, the EEG demonstrates alpha waves which are larger than the beta waves. This also is referred to as stage one. Stage Two is defined by the presence of sleep spindles and K-complexes. Stage three and stage four demonstrate deep sleep with delta followed by theta waves. Naturally the percentage of delta waves is higher in stage four. REM Sleep - after an adult has been asleep for about 90 minutes, the EEG becomes very active and rapid eye movement is noted. Dreaming usually occurs during REM sleep.
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