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Psychology 2012 - Chapter 10 - Chapter Ten MOTIVATION I...

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Chapter Ten MOTIVATION I. DEFINITION In general, motivation may be defined as a condition the energizes behavior and gives it direction . The innate (inborn) biological force that predisposes the organism to act in a certain way is called distinct. II. REWARDS AND INCENTIVES 1. Rewards and Reinforcers Rewards , as we have discussed before are roughly the same as reinforcers. Primary reinforcers act as rewards without prior learning. A sweet taste for example, is pleasant when tried for the first time. Secondary reinforcers become rewarding through learning such as money or poker chips. 2. Incentive , defined as any goal or external condition that causes an organism to act. Positive incentive directs behavior towards a goal while negative incentive directs behavior away from it. III. HOMEOSTASIS AND DRIVES Homeostasis is defined as the organism's tendency to maintain a constant internal environment. The internal environment may lose its constant balance due to physiological or psychological. When these factors occur, a condition called drive is brought about, which moves the organism towards taking care of the physiological or psychological need in order to regain the balance or homeostasis. An example is when a person feels thirsty, signaling change in homeostasis. The need for water drives the person to find and drink water. This will regain the condition of homeostasis. IV. THIRST Thirst is the psychological manifestation of the need for water which is essential for survival. Thirst has a physiological basis. When the water in the cells or within the cells of the body is eliminated and is lost, there is need to replace the lost water. This is manifested in a condition referred to as thirst. The organism has the need for water and
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shows the drive to find water. When the lost body water is not replaced, a condition called dehydration occurs. This is illustrated in cases of shipwreck or being stranded in a desert. Organism cannot live more than 3 days under this condition. Thirst is one of the most important and pressing motivators. Death due to thirst is reported to be very painful. V. HUNGER Hunger involves many of the same homeostatic concepts as thirst, but eating is more complex than drinking. For one thing, we are accustomed to eat at certain times of the day whether we are really hungry or not. Our eating behavior is influenced by social customs . Food preference is also the result of social learning. Intake of food gives us energy and maintains homeostasis. 1- The Role of Glucose in Hunger Glucose (sugar) has the most important role in hunger. Indeed when the level of glucose decreases in the blood, the body experiences the condition of hunger and the need for food intake is experienced. As the amount of glucose decreases, the body experiences more hunger. This is noted in an important experiment. As we know, glucose is burned in our bodies due to insulin secreted by our pancreas.
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