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Psychology 2012 - Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Intelligence...

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Chapter 12 - Intelligence, Mental abilities and their measurements 1. Functions of Psychological Tests Psychological test are used by psychologist for various purposes among them are prediction, control, explanation and description of behavior. They are also used for diagnosis, treatment of emotional problems and for personality assessment career evaluations. II. Classification of Psychological Tests Psychological tests can be classified in five groups depending on the purpose they are used for. 1. Aptitude and Achievement Tests Aptitude refers to a person’s abilities which are usually inherited. Achievement refers to how much a person has learned in a specific subject or task. For example, the test given in a course for mid-term or final is an achievement test, measuring how much a student has learned in the course. 2. Intelligent Tests Intelligent tests are administered to a person to determine his/her intellectual abilities. They usually yield an I.Q. score (intelligence quotient) which as we shall see later in this chapter, is the numerical value of intelligence. Most intelligent tests are administered individually, although there are some group tests available. 3. Interest, Vocational and Attitude Tests These tests demonstrate a persons interest in a specific area. Help guide a person to choose a vocation. Also measures general or individual attitudes and opinions. Our likes and dislikes are shown by our interest test. 4. Clinical Test These tests are sensitive in detection of clinical problems including brain damage or behavioral problems such as ADHD. Persons suspected of brain damage are usually given clinical tests and then referred to a neurologist (a medical doctor) for further evaluation. 5. Personality Tests Personality tests are the most popular and frequently used psychological tests. They usually evaluate not normal and abnormal personality patterns. We shall discuss them in a later chapter in detail. III. Requirements of Psychological Tests
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Psychological tests require three major requirements, which are reliability: validity and standardization. Without these requirements, we cannot depend on the outcome of a psychological test. 1, Reliability Reliability refers to consistency of a test to give the same or nearly the same score if it is used more than once. If a person, for example, receives the same score on the second administration of a test, the test is said to have 100% reliability. When a test is administered twice, the correlation between the two scores shows test- retest reliability. Although it is ideal to obtain a correlation of 100%, this is not always possible. Thus, correlations above 90% may be considered reliable. When two similar forms of the same test are used, the technique is called use of parallel forms. In this case, the correlation between two scores is considered the degree of the reliability of the test. Some psychological tests or educational tests have more than two forms. They show high reliability when they are used on the same person at different times.
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