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Psychology 2012 - Chapter 14 Stress

Psychology 2012 - Chapter 14 Stress - Chapter 14 Stress...

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Chapter 14 – Stress, Health, and Coping 1. Definitions Stress refers to experiencing events that are seen dangerous to physical or psychological well being of an individual. These events are usually called stressors. According to the Life Change Scale, the highest level of stress for a person is death of a spouse. Traumatic Events refers to situations of extreme danger that are outside the range of usual human experiences (examples: earthquakes, hurricanes, etc) Frustration can be defined as a feeling of unpleasant nature when progress towards a goal is blocked. Distracting noise, crowded lines at supermarkets and bad traffic usually cause frustration. Delay in reaching a goal can create frustration also. Conflict is a major source of frustration. It usually involved being forced to choose from two or more equally strong alternatives. 1. Reactions to Frustration Frustration is a subjective experiences, i.e. each person reacts to a frustrating situation differently. Usually people demonstrate the following reactions to frustration: A – aggression – most people become aggressive when they are frustrated. They may demonstrate direct or displaced aggression. A good example of displaced aggression is when a person who becomes upset with his boss kicks his dog after returning home (instead of loving his dog). B – apathy – Some people respond to frustration with indifference, as though the situation which frustrated them does not exist. Although apathy might be helpful in some situations, in cases of learned helplessness, it may be harmful to the individual. Learned helplessness is seen when a person or an animal gives up all hope for solving a frustrating situation. Studies of prisoners of war who suffered extreme deprivation showed learned helplessness. C – regression – Regression is a defense mechanism, which involves returning to a previously comfortable stage of life. Children and adults both demonstrate regression when they become frustrated. They may show child-like behavior and emotion. D – depression – Depression is also a common reaction to frustration. Frustrated people sometimes cry or demonstrate depressed mood, when they have difficulty in showing their feelings. This happens when a person has to keep working in a frustrating situation and is not able to five up his/her job. E – Working Through – The best method of dealing with frustrating situation is working through, i.e. dealing with frustrating situation logically and rationally and trying to solve the situation in an intelligent manner. Coping, withdrawal and changing are other realistic ways.
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2. Types of Conflicts Psychologist have identified four types of conflicts: A – approach – approach conflict – In this type of conflict a person is placed between two positive goals (alternatives) of equal strength. An example is when a person has to choose between two jobs of equal positive strength. B – Avoidance- Avoidance conflict – A person is likely to experience an avoidance-
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Psychology 2012 - Chapter 14 Stress - Chapter 14 Stress...

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