Psychology 2012- Chapter 11

Psychology 2012- Chapter 11 - Chapter Eleven I. Theories Of...

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Chapter Eleven I. Theories Of Motivation 1. The Psychoanalytic Theory The PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY, proposed by Sigmund Freud is a theory of human motivation. We have discussed parts of this theory in previous pages. Freud believed our actions and motives are determined by our inner forces and impulses belonging to our UNCONSCIOUS MIND. He stated that people are motivated by INSTINCES (unlearned behaviors). He proposed two opposing instincts: the LIFE INSTINCT (eros) and the DEATH INSTINCT (thanatus). The energy of life instinct is called LIBIDO (similar to lust). Freud believed that motives were based on instincts He felt learning and socialization WERE important in changing instincts. According to him, unconscious motives appear in our dreams, slips of tongue and various symptoms of mental illness. The two major and basic motives stated by Freud are SEX and AGGRESSION. 2. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs As we shall study later, ABRAHAM MASLOW proposed five levels of needs in the form of a triangle, from basic needs to the higher order ones. From the lowest to the highest, these levels include biological needs, security needs, love and belongingness, self-esteem needs and SELF-ACTUALIZATION. The highest level of needs according to Maslow is self-actualization, which includes reaching the highest potentials. Social: Love and Belongingness
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3. Social Learning Theory According to this theory, psychological motives are most influenced by SOCIAL FACTORS. This theory emphasizes the interaction between BEHAVIOR and ENVIRONMENT. Patterns of behavior are learned by experience or observation. VICARIOUS LEARNING is the same as learning by watching other. According to social learning theory, the two main sources of reinforcement are EXTERNAL and SELF- EVALUATIVE. External reinforcement refers to rewards given from outside sources. Self-evaluative reinforcement refers to the individual reinforcing or rewarding himself or herself. Sometimes self-punishment is used, when the person uses methods of punishing himself or herself for an act felt not right. Social learning theory believes factors that control human behavior include seld-
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Psychology 2012- Chapter 11 - Chapter Eleven I. Theories Of...

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