CalTPA%20DI%20Example%20Tasks%20Score%20Levels%204%20-%201

CalTPA%20DI%20Example%20Tasks%20Score%20Levels%204%20-%201...

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Unformatted text preview: D e s i gn in g In st r uct i o n T a sk Benchmark Cas es Score Level 4 # 04548608 9-11–Math-Geometry Score Level 3 #46033831 7-English-English 7 A/B Score Level 2 #00371268 10-Math-Algebra A/B Score Level 1 #86151205 2-Science-Life Science CalTPA Be nchmark Cases — Designing Instructi on Copyright ©, 2 0 07 by th e Calif ornia Com mi s s ion on Teache r Cre d entialing 1 90 0 Capitol Av enue , Sacram e n to, CA 95 8 1 1 All rights re s e rv ed. All mate rials c ontained h e rein are prote cte d by United State s copyright law and may not be re prod uc ed, dis tribute d, trans m itted , di splayed, publi sh ed or broadcast wi thout th e prior writte n pe rm i s si on of th e California Com mi s si on on Teacher Cred e ntialing. You may not alte r or re m ov e any trade mark, copyright or oth e r notic e f rom c opi e s of th e c onte nt. A ny re di stributi on or re prod uction of part or all of th e c onte nts in any f or m i s prohibited oth e r than th e f ollowing; • you may print or download to a local hard disk e xtracts f or your pe rs onal and non -com m e rcial us e only • you may copy th e c onte nt to individual third partie s f or th ei r pe rs onal us e , but only if you acknowl edg e th e Calif ornia Com m i s si on on Teacher Cre d en tialing as th e s ourc e and copyright o wn e r of th e mate rial. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 Step 1: Academic Content Selection and Learning about Students Directions: An important step in planning instruction is to learn about your students. Select one class, content area, and the state-adopted academic content standards for students to work with at this time. Respond to the prompts below about the class, unit of study, and how you learn about the students. A. Academic Content Selection Grade Level: 9-11 Content area: Mathematics Subject matter: Geometry 1. List the state-adopted academic content standards for students that you will cover at this time. 2. Students write geometric proofs, including proofs by contradiction. 5. Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles. 12. Students find and use measures of sides and of interior and exterior angles of triangles and polygons to classify figures and solve problems. 13. Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles. 16. Students perform basic constructions with a straightedge and compass, such as angle bisectors, perpendicular bisectors, and the line parallel to a given line through a point off the line. 17. Students prove theorems by using coordinate geometry, including the midpoint of a line segment, the distance formula, and various forms of equations of lines and circles. 2. Describe the unit of study that addresses those standards. The unit of study is congruent triangles. Congruent triangles are triangles that are the same size and shape. The unit is composed of the following lessons, each of which lists the corresponding state-adopted academic standards by number. Refer to above section (l.) for details of the standards. Lesson California Standards for Geometry Triangles and Angles 12,13 Congruence and Triangles 5 Proving Triangles are Congruent: SSS and SAS 2,5,16 Proving Triangles are Congruent: ASA and AAS 2,5 Using Congruent Triangles 2,5 Isosceles, Equilateral, and Right Triangles 5,12,13 Triangles and Coordinate Proof 2,5,17 This unit introduces students to proving triangles congruent and using congruent triangles in real-life problems. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–1 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 3. What is (are) the academic learning goal(s) for this unit of study? The learning goals for this unit are: 1. To classify triangles by their sides and angles. 2. To find angle measures in triangles. 3. To identify congruent figures and corresponding parts. 4. To prove that triangles are congruent by: a. Using corresponding sides and angles. b Using corresponding sides and angles. c Using the SSS and SAS Congruence Postulates. d Using the ASA Congruence Postulate and the AAS Congruence Theorem. e Using the HL Congruence Theorem f Using coordinate geometry. 5. To use congruent triangles to plan and write proofs. 6. To prove the constructions are valid. 7. To use properties of isosceles, equilateral, and right triangles. Class Information Age range of students: 14-18 Number of male students: 16 Total number of students 34 Number of female students: 18 B. Student Characteristics Linguistic Background 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Where were they born? Where did they live as small children? Where did they live as early adolescents? What is their home language? What is their current ELD classification (LEP, RFEP, ESL 3, etc.)? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. A student survey, done at the beginning of the semester, will provide answers to questions such as the students’ age, ages and names of siblings, personal interest, information about their most recent math class (title, instructor, grade, etc.), study habits (length of time devoted to math homework), after school commitments (outside job, babysitting at home, housework such as doing laundry), and post high school plans, This information is not limited to learning about their linguistic background – it serves as a quick tool to get an overview of the student in many areas of concern. The limitations are that this snapshot may be superficial and that a student might provide less than accurate answers. 608–2 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 Read through the “cum files of my students. Linguistic background information is contained there as well as a plethora of other information. If there is an IEP for the student, a copy will be in their cum file as well. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Directed attention –Decide in advance to focus on a specific learning task and to ignore irrelevant distracters. Selective attention – Decide in advance to focus on specific aspects of a problem. By recognizing that many students do not participate due to language deficiencies and with the realization that more and more of our students are coming into the school with language deficiencies and then are being mainstreamed as quickly as possible, it is imperative that the teacher does not force the students to participate or put them into an uncomfortable position. Planning may dictate that these students require a lesser workload (reduced number of homework problems, (extension of due dates, extended time on formal assessments. Literacy becomes and issue on word problems or even just comprehending the directions on a formal assessment. Academic instruction needs to be planned with these considerations in mind. Small group activities are essential for the construction of meaning and building prior knowledge. Students are permitted to use primary language to participate in class and to demonstrate knowledge in a variety of ways. Academic Language Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Skills 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? How many of the students received “courtesy D’s” from their previous math teacher? Was their most recent passing grade due to a liberal intersession teacher? How many times had they previously taken the same course? If so, how many times has it been repeated? What kind of study skills do the students possess? What standardized test results are available? What is the current literacy level of the student? When did the student get mainstreamed into English reading? What are the results of various standardized tests such as the SAT -9, the CAHSEE, PSAT, and SAT? Particularly key in on the stanines for the Stanford 9 exam to obtain a good representative snapshot of the abilities of the student. 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. A conference with a previous teacher can provide valuable insights into what makes the student tick. The previous teacher can provide an informal assessment (real-life) of the academic language abilities of the student, assess their level of content knowledge, assess their study skills habits )Do they know how to take notes? Do they do their homework assignments? Do they do their classwork or are they frequently disengaged). This resource is valuable because a teacher can give more realistic view of a student than can a written Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–3 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction page with facts and figures. At the same time, there is an element of bias that can unavoidable be contained in the views and responses of the teacher and may not reflect the nature of what MY interaction with the student may be like. The SIS coordinator at the school can help me run reports detailing as much information as I need about the students; it is simply up to me to decide which of the approximately 500 available fields of information I wish to include in the report! The benefit of running these reports is that they are unbiased and flexible to my demands. The cum file may provide other information as well. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Use a metacognitive strategy. An agenda will be displayed every day giving the date, a general overview of the organizing concept or ideas to be covered in the lesson. The agenda provides structure to the students. They understand from the agenda that we begin each day with a dispatch, review it, review last night’s homework, and proceed to today’s lesson. Routines will help LEP students anticipate what will happen without relying solely on language clues. As I get to understand my students, it will get easier to determine which types of graphic organizers will help the students construct meaning from the academic content. Using graphic organizers helps me to structure information, lessons, and presentations. Graphic organizers help my students access prior knowledge, preview and remember main ideas and concepts and operate a metacognitive stimuli. The scaffolding process reminds us that not all content is created equal and the teacher needs to decide what to leave out. Part of this decision is based upon determination of the power standards and part of the determination is based upon knowing your students and their interest. The relatively low level of skills exhibited by my students (we are after all a school with an API of 1) suggest the use of advanced organizers: students need to be connected to previous learnings and know where they are going with the information, assignments and activities. Imperative that I tell them my expectations. There is a need to access prior knowledge through the use of titles and pictures, to identify key vocabulary, identify key concepts, use graphic organizers to record information, teach using cooperative and small groups. Stanford 9 scores identify students who are close to reaching a higher bracket. The administration is keen on pushing scores p so that the state doesn’t take control of the school and/or change the current administration. Especially relevant to Belmont at this time because of the accreditation process which will culminate with a three day visit by the accreditation team in early April. Questioning is based on students” levels of English proficiency. An on-going monitoring and feedback system to verify students’ comprehension is incorporated into lessons. 608–4 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 Authentic assessments are used to monitor student work; assessment is considered part of on-going instruction. An integrated approach to instruction – the language teacher should see what academic language and instructional methods and materials the content teacher is using, while the content teacher can see which strategies the language teacher uses with LEP students. Identify the language and/or academic difficulties and demands, e.g. reading textbooks, completing worksheets, writing reports, solving mathematical and scientific word problems. It is important to write the objectives on the board and review them orally before class begins. Before students begin an activity, the teacher should familiarize them with the entire list of instructions. Then, the teacher should have students work on each step individually before moving on to the next step. Physical, Social and Emotional Development 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? What learning disabilities, if any, do my students have? Find out if my students prefer to learn from listening to theory or from applying information through hands-on activities. Find out if the students are visual, aural, textile, or kinesthetic types of learners. Do they exhibit other forms of multiple intelligences? What is their home life like and does it affect the student? Are the parents divorced, separated, are there two parents, one parent, no parents? Does the child live with another relative? Does the child live in a foster home? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Reading an IEP provides a wealth of information about specific students. Any resource student has special needs and by reading the IEP and conferring with the author of the IEP I can better understand the individualized needs of a particular student. It is helpful to read the “Cum” files of all students to better understand their academic backgrounds and learn more about them. There is more information than is contained in the student survey and it gives me a more detailed an in-depth picture of my students. For particular students, it may be helpful to conference with the school psychologist and obtain information. Generally speaking, the more networking I am able to do at school, the more I can find out about my students. There are obvious inefficiencies in Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–5 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction networking with upwards of twenty or more individuals in regard to upwards of 200 students per semester; only so many hours in a week! 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? The information obtained will be instrumental in my decision as to which accommodations and modifications I will choose to implement in my classes. Be aware of the conditions that help a student learn, e.g., sit a child in the front of the room, sit a child together in a group, sit a child by themselves apart from a group, teach a student how to take effective notes. Remember to use more visual, hands-on approaches rather than the lecture approach to instructed learning. Try to remember what it was like to be a 15-16 year old. Maturity levels are still in a state of flux at this stage of their development. Alternate activities to address the different types of learners. When Reteaching the lesson or part of the lesson, choose a different mode of instruction. Cultural and Health Considerations 1. What information, that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Are my students subjected to overcrowded housing conditions? Does it impair their ability to find space to study? Does the student need to help out with housework after school in lieu of studying? Does the student have an outside job after school that precludes the time necessary to do homework? Are there any health considerations, such as asthma, that might interfere with the students ability to study? Does the student have to watch younger siblings until one or both parents come home from their jobs? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. A parent conference can shed light on the home situation and simultaneously get the parent involved in the education of the child. Drawbacks include the language barrier and possible need for an interpreter, difference in cultural values whereby the parent affirms that family comes before education and thus it is far more important that “Jose” help out with the household chores than do his homework, and the inability of the parent(s), due to academic background, to help out with the homework of their children. 608–6 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 The school nurse does inform teachers when a child may need special considerations due to health reasons. For example, a student may require more frequent reasons to a rest room, may need to be out of their seat to exercise their legs, to go to the nurse whenever they have breathing difficulties, etc. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? The decreased available time of my students outside the classroom dictates that most of the work be done inside the classroom. Therefore, it makes sense to use cooperative and small groups so that assignments can be done faster, save on paper costs (a consideration for the lowest income groups), share ideas, peer teaching (especially effective if one has gifted students which I do not), spurs competition which seems to work well on this level, helps with the development of social skills (who said that all instruction needs to be geared towards academic standards fulfillment?), increases contribution and participation of shy students, etc.. If home support is lacking, the teacher may need to become combination teacher and parent for the child. Extensions may be warranted on deadlines and it may be necessary for the teacher to arrange to have work sent home for a student to work on if they are not able to come to school due to matters beyond their own control. The death of a family member (gang related or otherwise), friend, divorce or separation of parents may lead to prolonged periods of distractions, priorities change within a students mind. All these factors weight on the decisions of the teacher when planning academic instruction. Use of collaborative heterogeneous teams, materials and resources representative of diverse populations; Primary language support and themes representative of the cultural backgrounds of the students. Demonstrate sensitivity to the cultures represented in the classroom. Support provided in the primary language. Display student work represents variety of ELD levels, students grouped heterogeneously. Interests and Aspirations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? What are your post high school goals? Do you want to go to college? Are you parparing for the armed services/ Are you going to be looking for a job/ What are your hobbies? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. The student will write an essay, “A day in my life”, that will informally give me insights into their interests and aspirations and simultaneously provide insight into their ability to write in English. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–7 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Activity and/or discussion addresses real-life applications/contributions of students’ cultures related to the topic of the lesson. Step 2: Learning about Two Focus Students Directions: Select two focus students from the class you identified in Step 1. Select one student who is an English learner and one student who presents a different instructional challenge. Use some of the methods you described in Step 1 to learn about these two students and consider your selected content areas and subject matter when describing what you learned about the two focus students. Student 1: An English learner Gender: Female Age: English 1. Why did you select this student? Erika is an ESL 3 student. Her scores (Oral-2, Reading –4, Writing –3, Overall –2) present a challenge to a new teacher (myself) where normal assessments may not sufficiently represent the skill level of the student and where instructional strategies may need to be differentiated. She has done well in mathematics in previous courses and has no apparent learning disabilities other than the language barrier. 2. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? Erika was born in Zacateca, Mexico, her home language is Spanish, neither parent speaks English, and Erika has been classified as beginning ESL, level 2. Her overall rating is Early Intermediate. My instructional planning will not deviate far from a “normal” lesson plan – simply group Erika with a bilingual individual capable of translating some of the explanations. Erika’s mathematical abilities will carry her far. 3. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? Her academic language abilities are limited although the problem is mostly in oral responses and not one of reading. The technical language aspect of the subject matter actually works in Erika’s favor as math is a language in itself. As long as assessments do not test her abilities to analyze and provide expository responses, the calculations should pose no problems to her success. 4. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? Erika has received an “A” in her most recent math class (information pulled from her cum file), and there are no concerns about her content knowledge or skills. 608–8 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 5. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? Nothing in her cum file indicates any cause for concern regarding physical, social, or emotional development. She interacts well with other classmates and converses freely with them in her (and their) native language. I content myself by seeing what she can do on paper and feel that the language skills will develop at a later time. Last semester’s grades, as viewed on the SIS system, indicate that all of Erika’s grades are A’s and B’s including her ESL classes. 6. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? Erika’s cultural background is similar to the majority of students here at Belmont and does not pose a problem. Some accepted theories today are in favor of instruction in the English language and a feeling that Erika’s prior successes in her primary language will help make a smooth transition to her acquiring the necessary skills in her second language. No changes are warranted in the delivery of my lessons. 7. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? The only special considerations are a willingness on my part to forego the usual participation mode of my student by allowing Erika to either present her work at the blackboard, or even to allow her to present orally and use another student to translate her responses. I will encourage her to try to respond in English and know that she attempts to do so on occasion. What I will not do is force her to respond in a language that is uncomfortable for her. 8. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? Erika’s responses on the student information form (survey) indicate that math is her favorite subject and there is an excellent chance that she will continue her education post high school. No deviation from standard instruction is warranted in this area. 9. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) Attendance problems have been nonexistent, no extracurricular activities that I am aware of. No impact on my lesson plans. Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge. Gender: Male Age: 18 1. Why did you select this student? Art is a resource student designated as SLD (specific learning disability)( who is repeating this course. He lives alone and works in the construction field on a semi-regular basis. If he has a job assignment, he will leave school for a period of time (generally a week) to earn Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–9 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction some money to support himself. I have selected Art because of his unusual circumstances and because of the honesty and frankness that is often missing in adolescent youths. 2. How is the instructional challenge that he or she presents different from that of the other student? Art does not have language problems. Art presents a challenge in that his comprehension skills are low, his prior knowledge base is weak, he does not have the time to devote to homework, and he learns at a slower pace than other students. Art’s IEP indicates that he is performing at a fifth to sixth grade level in Mathematics, that he has both visual and auditory processing deficiencies, and that these deficiencies impact his acquisition and retention of skills. These challenges are quite different from those of Erika whose sole limitation appears to be expressing herself orally due to her limited English proficiency. 3. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? Art’s linguistic background indicates special education problems, not specifically linguistic ones. Art can have a very normal conversation and understands English perfectly well. His stanines indicate poor results – reading level is 1, math level is 3, language level is 3. No change in lesson plan format will be necessary in respect to linguistic background. This is a nonissue. 4. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? Art’s academic language abilities in Geometry are not particularly poor or troublesome – it simply takes Art a longer time to do problems and he loses interest if the workload is excessive. When he does understand a concept, he explains it with a confidence and a wit second to none. Art needs me to stay on top of him and monitor his progress on a regular basis. I need to check with Art on each activity and verify that he understands the directions and what is expected of him. I also need to make sure that his workload is reduced so that he doesn’t give up because of the “excessive” amount of work. 5. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? Art does have a problem in this area. His content knowledge is limited by his disabilities and it is also my impression that previous teachers have not responded well to Art because they did not avail themselves of the information contained in his cum file and IEP file. Art can achieve a limited mastery of the subject content, it will simply take a lot of time and effort and may be impeded by Art’s desire to live independently. His lifestyle dictates that he provide for himself, often at the expense of devoting the necessary hours required to achieve subject competency. His learning disability also suggests that even if free time were available, it would be a long and difficult road for Art to apply himself. My intention is to limit his workload and provide the encouragement that he needs to bolster his self confidence and thereby stay on task. 6. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? 608–10 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 Socially, Art needs a small group environment. I have provided this (to all my students, not only Art) and it seems to work well. His IEP indicated a certain degree of difficulty to stay engaged and complete tasks and I make it a point to check up on him to make him give me on extra bit of effort regardless of where he is in relation to task completion. He has enough trust in me to give me what I ask and he is not reluctant to ask for the additional help. 7. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? Art has been independent for several years now and does not receive the family support that an adolescent is in need of. Taken in context of the class as a whole, this is not as much a problem as it may appear since a large number of my students experience the lack of family support in their academic endeavors. The parents deny this, but when pressed, they agree that the cultural background of the Hispanics puts family before education and thus parental support has lesser impact on academic success than it might in other cultural contexts. I do not anticipate having to make any changes in instruction in regard to this area. 8. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? There are no health considerations to take into account. My own personal considerations are that a resource student, such as Art, who has in his IEP that the workload should be reduced from a classwork, homework, and assessment standpoint, should not be expected to maintain the same rigorous standards as the other students. It seems to me that if we need to make allowances for Art to perform in an academic context, then we also need to make allowances on the expectations we have of him and how we measure whether he has achieved these expectations. Perhaps I am missing the point, but do we seriously expect those individuals who have disabilities to perform on par with those who do not? Should not success be measured on one’s improvement from one level to the next? 9. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? It is interesting that Art has an interest in drawing and has aspirations to become an architect. Art and I have discussed this in some detail. When I asked Art if he still has interest in being an architect, his response is yes but it is difficult when one doesn’t understand angles very well. To my suggestion that he hire someone who does understand angles, the response was “that would eat into my profits and I wouldn’t make as much money if I had to do that!” An exhibition of street smarts that puts to shame many others his age. Planning to integrate some aspects of an architects job into a lesson plan, or several lesson plans, whether for the entire class or individually created for Art, would go a long way to maintaining Art’s interest in Geometry and reinforce the necessity that he achieve some degree of mastery in the subject. 10. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) Attendance does become an issue when supporting himself financially conflicts with the necessity to attend school on a regular basis. I have made accommodations where I have given Art worksheets to do at home which explain the lesson in an abbreviated manner, provide several simple, clear examples of problems, and require a limited amount of work to complete. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–11 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Step 3: Planning for Academic Instruction for the Whole Class Directions: Consider your academic content selection in Step 1 and what would you want the students to learn? As you begin to think about a lesson that falls within the selected unit of study, respond to the prompts below about your plan for academic instruction for the whole class. 1. At what point in the sequence of the unit is this lesson? Put an X next to one: ___at the beginning of the unit of study _x_between the beginning and the end of the unit of study ___at the end of the unit of study List the state-adopted academic content standard(s) for students you will address in the lesson. 5. Students prove that triangles are congruent or similar, and they are able to use the concept of corresponding parts of congruent triangles. 12. Students find and use measures of sides and of interior and exterior angles of triangles and polygons to classify figures and solve problems. 13. Students prove relationships between angles in polygons by using properties of complementary, supplementary, vertical, and exterior angles. What is (are) your academic learning goal(s)? What specifically do you expect students to know or be able to do as a result of the lesson? Students will be able to use properties of isosceles, equilateral, and right triangles to solve problems involving angle measurements and proving congruence of triangles. They shall be able to work on classwork activities and complete a homework assignment that demonstrates their understanding of the skills and concepts presented in this lesson. The students will need to connect prior knowledge to newly acquired knowledge in order to complete their tasks. How is (are) your academic learning goal(s) related to the state-adopted academic content standards for students? The academic learning goal of my lesson is directly related to the state-adopted academic content standards listed in item #2 above. The lesson deals primarily with properties of special triangles, but the prior knowledge accumulated throughout the coursework will be indispensable towards mastering today’s lesson. The goal of the lesson addresses standard #5 by applying newly learned theorems and corollaries to the logical reasoning required to determine if sufficient information is present in a problem to prove that triangles are congruent. The goal of the lesson addresses standard #12 by using the newly learned properties of special triangles to solve problems concerning measurements of angles in triangles and to classify triangles within the context of there being isosceles, equilateral, or right triangles. The goal of the lesson addresses standard #13 in the specific case of the polygon being a triangle. 2. 3. 4. 608–12 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 5. BMC # 04548608 How will the content of the lesson build on what the students already know and are able to due? The students will have already learned how to classify triangles by their sides and angles and thus they will have been exposed to definitions for isosceles, equilateral, and right triangles. Solving problems involving angle measurements requires that students already know how to use algebra to solve an equation containing variables. The students will have already learned how to draw angles using protractors and the students will have already been exposed to angle theorems pertaining to vertical, complimentary, supplementary and straight angles. The lesson being presented in this task will build on these skills to achieve the aforementioned goals. How will the content of the lesson connect to the content of preceding and subsequent lessons? The content of the lesson will build on a previously acquired skill of using a protractor to find angle measurements on triangles. The content of the lesson will build on the students’ ability to identify congruent figures and corresponding parts and their ability to prove that two triangles are congruent through various postulates and theorems (SSS, SAS, ASA, and AAS). The students will have also been recently exposed to planning and writing proofs involving congruent triangles. The lesson will connect to previous notation (such as “_”, the symbol for perpendicular), the fact that perpendicular lines form right angles, that the measure of a right angle is 90o, that the measure of a straight angle is 180o, that vertical angles are congruent, that the sum of the measures of the angles of a triangle equals 180o, that each angle of an equilateral triangle equals 60o, and the Angle Addition Postulate, to name a few. The content of the lesson will connect to subsequent lessons by providing background information for these special types of triangles when further discussion of triangles pertains to properties for all triangles, including special triangles. The connections will be coordinate proofs, perpendicular bisectors of all triangles, angle bisectors, medians, altitudes, and midsegments. 6. 7. What difficulties do you anticipate students could have with the lesson content and why? Many students, especially ELL’s have difficulty with the words “always”, “sometimes”, and “never” when applied to mathematics. In particular, this lesson will beach that all equilateral triangles are isosceles, but some isosceles triangles are equilateral. The fact that the majority of my students have a home language of Spanish and few, if any, could be classified as having CALP skills, makes it more challenging to present the lesson. Based on past experience, students also have trouble when presented with the Hypotenuse_Leg Congruence Theorem, they invariably confuse the legs and hypotenuse of the right triangle and often incorrectly apply these terms to triangles that are not right triangles. Perhaps the confusion lies in the fact the previous lessons have stressed that Angle-Side-Side does not constitute congruency, but that HL congruence is a form of this (and therefore an exception to the rule). In general, traditional textbooks are beyond the reach of many students and alternative strategies to “read pages _ to_ in the text” are necessary. The reading level of the traditional textbook is usually too high. Often the type is too small and the pages are too crowded. 608–13 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. BMC # 04548608 8. CalTPA–Designing Instruction What evidence will you collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson that will show the extent to which the students have learned what you intended? 1. Classwork will be assigned during and collected at the end of the lesson. The classwork will be a handout from the Chapter 4 Resource Book that comes with the TE of the textbook. Progress monitoring in the form of a power walk will provide partial evidence of student learning. 2. A group work project will also be collected at the end of the lesson and will be a handout from the “Geometry Teacher’s Activities Kit”. 3. Homework will be assigned at the beginning of the lesson and will be collected the following day. Think about how you will sequence your instruction of the academic content to be covered in this lesson. Describe your plan for instruction in the order in which it will be implemented. Address each of the following and provide a rationale for each of your decisions: • Communicating the academic learning goal(s) to the students • Instructional strategies • Student activities • Student grouping • Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room • Progress monitoring of student learning Instructional Plan Prior to the beginning of class, an agenda is written on the board. The agenda includes the date, the primary California academic standard being addressed by the lesson (for this lesson the primary standard will be #12), the specific goals for the lesson (1. Use properties of isosceles and equilateral triangles. 2. Use properties of right triangle), dispatch activity and review, homework review and collection, directed lesson, class work activities, and new homework assignment. The instructional strategies are basically outlined in the agenda mentioned above. The dispatch activity presents problems from prior lessons to reinforce the learning process and maintain levels of prior knowledge and also incorporates a problem or two that leads into today’s lesson. The teacher reviews the dispatch; students check their own work at their desks. Dispatch is a small group activity. Rationale Clear expectations dictate communicating the academic learning goal(s) to the students. This helps to reinforce what they are about to learn and helps them focus on those parts of the lesson that deliver the goals. The concept of informing the students about the primary standard is so important that our administration has decided that displaying the standard is mandatory for each day. The fact that the school is going through its accreditation process may also have had some impact on the administrations decision to implement this policy. The dispatch activity is designed to last for ten to fifteen minutes, during which time the teacher can take attendance, check homework, monitor that all students are engaged, and check their progress on 9. Instructional Plan Rationale All sophisticated vocabulary must be listed and completing the dispatch activity. Allowing 608–14 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction defined at the beginning of the lesson. I need to pre-teach these words, providing ample opportunities for students to pronounce, discuss, and use each term prior to beginning the lesson. The lesson should end with a lesson review that includes concise, bulleted statements highlighting the main ideas of the lesson. BMC # 04548608 students to work in small groups allows them to share thoughts, ask each other for help, provides a setting for peer teaching, and provides a competitiveness that propagates learning. Formation of the groups is an essential requirement that the teacher must reflect upon prior to formation of the groups to insure that the right mix of students is present in all groups. The dispatch has been previously addressed. The rationale for providing a directed lesson is to simplify the technical The students write the agenda into their language of the textbook. Most students in notebooks, work on the dispatch activity, make an API 1 school lack the skills to be able to corrections to their dispatch activity during the read academic language and need help time the teacher reviews the dispatch, take understanding the material. This lesson notes during the directed teaching portion of will present definitions for the base and the lesson, ask questions for clarification of vertex angles of an isosceles triangle, point not understood, and perform small group present theorems on base angles and HL work during the two varied classwork congruence, and two corollaries for exercises. equiangular/equilateral triangles. The base angles theorem can be taught by student activity whereby the students create isosceles triangles, measure the base angles, and make a conjecture about the base angles of isosceles triangles. This hands-on activity reinforces the lesson and provides an alternative way to present material while appealing to various intelligences of students. Much has been written about the benefits and challenges of student grouping. My own, limited experiences suggest that this is an approach which benefits the students. I try to arrange groups of four that include an “A/B” level student and a suitable mixture My student grouping is consistently using pods of students of lower level abilities. At the of four arranged in a T formation. same time, I try to create a mix of students of lower level abilities. At the same time, I try to create a mix of students that reflect various stages of secondary language development – in particular, to make sure that each group contains at least one Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–15 BMC # 04548608 Instructional Plan CalTPA–Designing Instruction Rationale individual who is proficient in L2. I change the composition of the groups approximately every 4 – 5 weeks. The changes are made to allow for new student interactions and to insure that the criteria for the reasons for the group formations are still being met – as students improve or deteriorate in their skill levels, minor adjustments to the “mixes” need to be make The lesson itself dictates the materials necessary for its delivery. I try to vary the instructional activities as much as possible, but I am not always successful. This particular lesson will incorporate a handson activity, directing learning, problemsolving classwork, and a handout for group work which should provide the necessary mix of activities to keep the students engaged and motivated. The obvious rationale for monitoring student progress is to see what they have learned. When the majority of the class “did not get it”, it is time to reteach the lesson, hopefully in a different manner from the original presentation. Progress monitoring identifies those students that are having difficulties allows the teacher to also focus on the needs of select students (perhaps ELL’s or other special needs individuals). Materials required for the lesson include: an overhead projector, projector screen, transparency for the lesson, chalk or white board, chalk or dry-erase markers, handouts for the activities. This class does not have any instructional aides, teaching assistants, parents, or other adults in the room Progress monitoring is on going. Power walk during dispatch and all classwork activities, Q & A during homework and dispatch review, and review of classwork and homework when I go home for the evening. Other lessons plans utilize other aspects of progress monitoring. 10. Given the difficulties you anticipate students could have with the content, what additional steps would you take to foster access and comprehension for all students? I would try to identify and anticipate problems by reflecting on prior experience with the same material in a different class and seek out help by networking with other teachers in my department who are teaching/have taught the same material, and inquire or observe how they present the material. I network with our Coach and get helpful suggestions from him. I network with resource teachers, the bilingual coordinator and my mentor for Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–16 CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 suggestions relevant to the particular mix of my class and learn alternative methods to differentiate instruction, make accommodations and modifications. 11. How would you share the results of student academic learning with students and families? I create a “Wall of Fame” that displays student’s work. All students can compare their work to the posted examples and to the posted rubric to analyze their own work. Communications are made with parents infrequently due to time constraints of two preps, extensive monitoring of classwork and homework, DI responsibilities that consume vast portions of my weekends, and reticence on my part to communicate with parents whose predominant home language is Spanish, a language that I do not speak. However, parent involvement is warranted when there are problems and I do see many of the parents during the parent conferences. I would like to involve the parents more and would make the effort once my schedule permits it. Step 4: Lesson Adaptations for the Two Focus Students Directions: Consider what you have learned about the two focus students in Step 2 and the implications for instruction that you identified for each of them. For the two students, determine what adaptations you will make to this lesson that you have planned for the whole class. Describe those adaptations for each of the two focus students. If you determine that no adaptations are needed for a part of the plan for instruction, indicate that decision. Complete the table below. In each box include: • your decisions about lesson adaptations, and • a rationale for those decisions. Student 1: An English learner 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. Before the lesson begins, go over the objectives/goals. Rephrase the objectives as questions and have Erika write them down. Make sure Erika can answer the questions at the end of the lesson. There will not be a need to make any adaptations to the academic learning goals themselves. My rationale for this decision is that Erika’s primary limitation is oral communication. This will not negatively impact her ability to solve problems She is quite capable to perform all classwork activities and I have made arrangements (OIK –so there may be one minor adaptations here) with Erika that she may always choose to do work at the board in lieu of responding verbally if she is more comfortable doing so. She can also answer in Spanish and another student can translate her response for me. There are no verbal aspects to any of my homework assignments. Erika has a solid foundation and has the prior knowledge necessary to bridge the gap between yesterday’s skills and today’s lesson. 608–17 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. BMC # 04548608 2. CalTPA–Designing Instruction Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson Since Erika is being held to the same high expectations as the rest of the class, I will examine her evidence as I would from any other student. The adaptation is in the conveyance of the assignments, and the assignments themselves require only the solutions of problems and are not inhibited by a lack of language skills. As long as Erika is clear about the directions of the task she needs to perform, there should not be any problems. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. The adaptation here is to compensate for the language problem for either having another student translate for me, or by having a translation prepared in writing by another staff member to assist me in communicating with Erika. The rationale is that it is the communication of the idea that is important, not the method in which it is done. Instructional strategies The adaptation to instructional strategies is to speak very slowly, use easy vocabulary and check frequently for comprehension. More hands on activities and less lecturing aids the learning process. The rationale is that even though Erika test relatively high on comprehension and reading skills, she is still an ELL student and can only benefit from the proposed adaptation. Student Activities Erika’s form of adaptation is to allow her to demonstrate her prowess in writing by demonstration in lieu of language. While I am sure that her language skills will improve over time, it is hardly beneficial on my part to try to force oral responses to questions when Erika may still be in the “quiet” period of her language acquisition. The rationale for this adaptation is that theories that we have studied these past several few weeks pertaining to the Preproduction, Early Production, Speech Emergence and Intermediate Fluency stages of Second Language Acquisition. Student grouping The adaptation here, one that is crucial to her success, is to pay close attention to the makeup of her group. Erika needs to be in a group of quiet, conscientious, somewhat skilled students, at least one of which has an excellent grasp of academic English and who can explain/translate any parts of the directed learning portion of the lesson that Erika may have difficulty understanding due to the language barrier. Rationale for this adaptation is to ensure that Erika receives the comprehensible input that is required for academic learning. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room If possible, have materials printed in a bilingual fashion. Allow Erika access to both languages and let her use whichever one is most helpful. I am a firm believer that early ESL learners should have access to content in their first language whenever possible. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 608–18 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 8. BMC # 04548608 Progress monitoring of student learning Erika gets more than an average amount of attention from me because I need to monitor her progress by observing her work. I increase the frequency that I view her work compared with other students. If there is a problem with a concept, I will ask another member of her group too explain in Spanish. If the error is computational in nature, simply correcting the error on her paper together with a smile that says “I know that you know better than that!” is sufficient. Rationale is always to apportion one’s time to give the greatest attention to those who need it the most. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family I always end the lesson with words of encouragement for Erika and show her which type(s) of problem(s) she needs to work on. She is always receptive to my suggestions. I occasionally fill out a “complimentary” form and send it with Erika so that her parents will be aware of her progress in my class and the fact that I am proud of her achievements. Isn’t the rationale somewhat obvious? 9. Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. Art requires several adaptations to the lesson. First, Art will neither be able to complete as many classwork or homework problems as the other students and my adaptation will be to reduce his workload. Second, I need to continuously monitor Art to check to see if he understands the lesson. His frankness will provide the input that I need to make informed decisions as to how to reteach the material to Art. Art frequently forget his “newly acquired” knowledge and needs reinforcement to connect to the current lesson. Most problems need to be modeled for Art. I will adapt this lesson, and all lessons, to try to circumvent Art’s visual and auditory processing deficiencies. I will do this by choosing examples that have clear, concise, written directions and will allow Art to convey his learning to me in whatever way is comfortable for him, be it orally, written, artistically through the use of diagrams, drawings, pictures, etc. 2. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson I will collect the dispatch activity and review it, with Art for accuracy. My rationale is to make sure Art has not forgotten his prior knowledge and is able to connect to today’s lesson. It will also afford me the opportunity to help Art ease his way into today’s lesson. Art will do a discovery activity that I will personally design for him relating to the measurement of the base angles of an isosceles triangle. This hands-on exercise will appeal to his artistic nature and provide both a tactile and kinesthetic experience for him. My rationale is that this will better reinforce what needs to be learned than by merely Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–19 BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction This will be copying notes from the blackboard and listening to a directed lesson. collected during the lesson. 3. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. I will prepare a handout for Art which contains the agenda for the day, the primary standard for the day, the learning goals for the day, and the homework assignment due tomorrow. My rationale for this action is that the time spent copying the agenda can better be used by working on the dispatch problems. Any time I can save, for example from copying material written o the blackboard, provides valuable additional working time for Art during class time. I will also check with Art to make sure he has read the handout at the beginning of class and question him on what he thinks he will be learning today. I will tell him my expectations are that he complete the discovery exercise, explain what the results mean to him (an informal verbal assessment of what he derived from the activity) and which of the homework problems I expect him to complete. I always reduce his homework work load due to his after-school schedule and special needs. 4. Instructional strategies Art’s “differences” are studied as a basis for planning my instruction. I will provide written instructions as reinforcement for the oral instructions given to the rest of the class. I will provide visuals with my lecture. Art needs this strategy because of his auditory sequencing processing deficit. To help Art with his visual sequencing processing deficit, I will also read all directions aloud, provide oral instructions, write everything on a custom-tailored handout, and change the font color for every other question to facilitate recognition. Handouts will be clearly written using simple language. I will talk at a slower pace and give Art one task to accomplish at a time. Art always sits in a small group of two to four students in close proximity to my desk at the front of the classroom. Capitalize on Art’s strengths. Provide a lot of structure to the lesson and clear expectations. Use short sentences and simple vocabulary. Provide opportunities for success in a supportive atmosphere to help build self – esteem. Ten key points to be addressed in adapting a lesson for Art: 1. Provide structured, consistent sessions that include: a. Review of previous lesson. b. Overview of materials to be presented. c. Summary at close of the session. d. Emphasis of important points, main ideas and key concepts. e. Timelines for completing each assignment and segments of assignment. f. Clearly defined expectations and student’s responsibilities. 2. Provide feedback and monitoring (Did you understand that concept, shall I explain further?) understanding of the new concepts. 608–20 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 5. BMC # 04548608 Student Activities Because of a long and painful history of struggling with his difficulties, apparent underachievement, and continued experience of “failure”, Art has low self- esteem and lacks confidence in himself and his abilities. Art will have a time extension on all assignments including classwork, homework, and projects. Art has available to him the use of a pocket calculator to eliminate errors by is aligning numbers, and can thus concentrate more fully on grasping the concept. Art, and any other student for that matter, is permitted to tape record the class for future reference. Student grouping Art is to be grouped with one to three additional students who do not have any learning disabilities and who have been classified as IEP in their second language skills. While I do not encourage students to request whom they would like to sit with, I do make an exception in Art’s case. I respect his wishes so long as his decision does not interfere with his work. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room No adaptation for this area; there are no instructional aides assigned to this class. Art has no parents or guardian, and there are no other adults in the room. They would not be needed even if they were available to me. Other adaptations previously described should be sufficient. Progress monitoring of student learning Question Art during classroom discussions to check his understanding of the material being taught. C Circulate around the classroom during seatwork and engage in one-to-one contact with Art about his work. Keep questions at an appropriate level of difficulty. Give extra time and attention to Art. Art requires support, encouragement, and attention to his successes to foster achievement of learning goals. The student and/or the family More frequent feedback is necessary to keep Art on track. In fact, daily feedback is essential. I will also share results with the lead person who wrote the IEP and other teachers. This is an ongoing process, not one limited to this lesson plan. 6. 7. 8. 9. Step 5: Reflection on Connecting Instructional Planning to Student Characteristics Directions: Read your responses to the prompts in Steps 1-4. Think about what you have learned in Task 2 about the characteristics of the two focus students, your instructional planning for the whole class, and your adaptations for the focus students. Respond to the prompts below: 1. What information that you collected for the whole class and/or for the two focus students most influenced your planning for this lesson? Why? 608–21 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. BMC # 04548608 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Ninety-five percent of my students list Spanish as their home language. About two-thirds of the class is classified as ELL with overall levels ranging from ESL 1 to RFEP. The textbook used for the course lists problems according to degree of difficulty by separating and classifying the homework problems into categories of “Basic”, “Average”, and “advanced”. The background of my students, the community in which they reside, their cumulative API score, and my own personal observations all influence my teaching and my instructional strategy choices. A “least restrictive environment” philosophy/mandate coupled with rigorous and high accountability academic standards have molded my think. It is my belief, also shared by many others, that there are far too many standards to address within a semester of instruction. Coupled together with the inherent challenges that my students face, it makes considerable sense to limited the number of standards addressed to the primary ones, the “power standards”. It makes sense that my students should grasp a more limited number of important standards, emphasizing the basic skills, rather than expecting the students to master all the standards. Their connections to prior knowledge are often weak or non-existent. Belmont SH enrolls approximately 500 new students each year who have been in this country for less than two years and who are academically deficient in both their primary and second language (L1 and L2). Thus, the combination of time limitations imposed by being a Concept 6 school and the multiple limitations of the majority of Belmont’s students dictate that my focus to be on the “basic” category of homework problems, previously described, for presentation and initial classroom practice followed by the “Average” type problems to both monitor progress and level of retention. The last category, the “Advanced” problems, together with select challenging type problems included in the teacher resource materials provides materials for those few students who are either gifted or have an affinity for the subject. The construction activity for this particular lesson lends itself well to the makeup of the class and provides a refuge from the “boring lecture” attempt at instruction. It connects with various types of learners and engages the students in a meaningful way. 2. How will you use what you have learned in regard to connecting instructional planning to student characteristics in the future? In your response, you may address collecting student information and/or planning instruction based on student information. Knowing your student is far more important an issue than I had ever believed possible. Understanding their degree of language proficiency in multiple languages by reading LEP reports, cum files, IEP’s, and networking with previous teachers provides one facet of insight. Finding the holes in their prior knowledge by pre-unit prerequisite skills assessments, designing sheltered instruction and chunk it, finding an appropriately motivating way to present the lesson all contribute to altering the way I will design instructional strategies in the future. Revisiting the student survey I prepared last semester and redesigning some of the question swill provide more meaningful input. Reading through cum files and IEP’s will help me focus on those students who require a disproportional amount of my time to stay focused and be held accountable. 608–22 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 The TPE’s that are indirectly addressed in this TPA have taken on new faces of relevancy as the weeks pass by. Identifying ELL’s and understanding their specific deficiencies in comparison to fluent speakers forces me to consciously attempt to make content accessible to all my students, to develop appropriate teaching practices, to learn more about my students, and to work on instructional planning. An increase in modeling different types of problems should prove to be beneficial to the whole class. Knowing my students abilities and backgrounds will help me form better cooperative small learning groups that integrate beginning and early intermediate ELL'’ with other students whose English proficiency is far more proficient. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 608–23 CalTPA—ROE BENCHMARK CASE Designing Instruction BMC # 04548608 Grade: 9-11 Content Area: Mathematics Evidence Subject Matter: Geometry Interpretations of Evidence GS : Detailed goals clearly described and connected to K12 SACS LAS: Extensive and relevant student information Detailed implications for instruction GS (Establishing Goals/Standards): K-12 SACS related to mathematics listed. Unit in geometry described. Seven academic learning goals listed. LAS (Learning About Students): Multiple methods used to collect relevant information (cum files, conference with previous teacher, SIS coordinator, school psychologist and nurse, parents, self-assessment by S(s). Rationale provided for all information-gathering strategies. PFI (Planning For Instruction): Agenda for lesson is described with anticipation of difficulties for ELLS. Rationale provided to support plan for instruction. MA (Making Adaptations): Adaptations described for both FSs (selected problems, written rather than verbal answers, hands-on exercises, custom handout). ELD practices described. PS (Using Subject-specific Pedagogical Skills): Strategies for teaching content are described (dispatch activity, homework review, direct lesson with hands-on student activity). Rationale for instructional choices provided. PFI: Planning purposefully connected and reinforces unit goals and content standards MA: Appropriate, clear, and convincing adaptations P S: Strategies and materials are relevant and appropriate for students and content R (Reflecting): Reflection is thoughtful analysis of teacher candidate’s learning with links to future teaching. R: Detailed reflection related to TPEs Summary Statement – There is clear, consistent, and convincing evidence provided by the teacher candidate for the TPE domains assessed in this task. Score: 4 Copyright © 2001, 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Step 1: Academic Content Selection and Learning about Students Directions: An important step in planning instruction is to learn about your students. Select one class, content area, and the state-adopted academic content standards for students to work with at this time. Respond to the prompts below about the class, unit of study, and how you learn about the students. A. Academic Content Selection Grade Level: Content area: Subject matter: 7 English English 7 A/B 1. List the state-adopted academic content standards for students that you will cover at this time. Reading 2.0 Reading comprehension ELA 2.1 Understand and analyze the differences in structure and purpose standards between carious categories of informational materials (e.g. textbooks, newspapers, instructional materials, signs). 2.3 Analyze text that uses the cause-and-effect organizational pattern. Writing 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) 2.3Write research reports: a. Pose tightly drawn questions about the topic. b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject. c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g. use of card catalogue, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalogue, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries). d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and bibliography. Written and Oral English Language Conventions 1.0. Written and Oral Language Conventions 1.4 Demonstrate the mechanics of writing (e.g., quotations marks, commas at the end of dependent clauses) and appropriate English usage (e.g. pronoun reference) 1.6 Use correct capitalization 1.7 Spell derivatives correctly by applying the spellings of bases and affixes. Listening and Speaking 1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies 1.4 Organize information to achieve particular purposes and to appeal to ELA the background and interests of the audience. standards 1.5 Arrange supporting details, reasons, descriptions, and examples effectively and persuasively in relation to the audience. 1.6 Use speaking techniques, including voice modulations, inflection, tempo, enunciation, and eye contact, for effective presentations. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–1 BMC #46033831 1.0 2.2 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Deliver oral summaries of articles and books. a. Include the main ideas of the event or article and the most significant details. b. Use the student’s own words, except for material quoted from sources. c. Convey a comprehensive understanding of sources, not just superficial details. 2. Describe the unit of study that addresses those standards. This thematic unit revolves around the theme: “The natural world and our responsibility for protecting and caring for it. “Therefore, all of the novels, articles, short stories, and other information researched and studied will be based on man’s relationship and contact with nature. It will require that students read and understand grade level, as well as, above grade level appropriate material. They will be required to connect the essential ideas, arguments and perspectives of text using their knowledge of text structure, organization and prose. They will write clear coherent and focused essays that contain formal introductions, supporting evidence, and conclusions. They will need to show their progression through the various stages of the writing process. They will write and speak with a proper command of English conventions appropriate to grade level both in terms of written and oral presentations. They will also write persuasive papers of at least 500 words that thoroughly examine an aspect of nature that they choose to research. They will deliver well organized formal presentations employing traditional rhetorical strategies (e.g., narration, exposition, persuasion, description). These papers will require a bibliography and that students give credit for quotes they use. This will demonstrate command of American English, research, organizational strategies, and drafting strategies outlined in the Standards for the Unit. 3. What is (are) the academic learning goal(s) for this unit of study? The above mentioned standards and unit will empower students to come to a clearer Unit understanding of their role in the world they live in, and help establish them as goals responsible, caring citizens. They will understand the importance of clear and coherent communication in both oral and written forms. They will be able to persuade others, in a clear and coherent manner, to come to mutual understanding and be able to use the understanding to build tolerance and respect towards other points of view. They will be able to do the following: • Research an interpret information from a variety of genres and sources. • Coherently present an argument for their thoughts and beliefs in written form. • Present an oral presentation that is coherent and logically organized. • Persuade others, including peers, using the standard rhetorical methods of argument and rationalization. • Express thoughts and opinions in a clear and logical manner in both oral and written form. • Analyze different forms of literature and synthesize the information to draw their own conclusion form it. • Use cognitive skills to come up with rational solutions for common problems. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–2 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Class Information Age range of students: 11-13 Number of male students: 15 Number of female students: 17 Total number of students: 28 B. Student Characteristics Linguistic Background 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Linguistic background is very important to my instruction because it will Information enable me to tap into students’ prior knowledge, as well as know how to too general approach them in terms of simple customs and beliefs when presenting new information to them by way of examples or anecdotes. It will also give me a clear understanding of any pre-teaching required as English is essential in an English classroom. 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. The first method I would use is a simple questionnaire. This will give me a basic understanding of the primary language spoken at home as well as other much needed information. Because most of my students come from Spanish speaking homes it is important that I get a grasp on which language students think and feel in. For this, a simple free-write exercise stating the importance of language at home and how they feel toward it, would help me come to a better understanding of how important it is to them, which language they feel more attached too, and which language they feel more comfortable with. These methods would give me a clear understanding of the linguistic background of each child individually. Collectively it would definitely be a means of finding out the attitude towards the English language and to a certain extent my classroom, as an English teacher. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? The information gained from these methods will help me plan my lessons tremendously. They will enable me to prepare cultural anecdotes for Appropriate lessons. They will help me understand their point of view in terms of connection of comfort in a language. It will give me an indication of their attitude information towards their home and school language and how open they are to learning to planning more about it. It will also enable me to understand their perspectives in academic terms of differences between “home” life and “school” life. It will also instruction alert me to any variations in syntax between American English and their home language, if different. By doing this I will be better prepared to help Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–3 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction them with the most common problems that students of that linguistic background have. Academic Language Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Skills 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Foreknowledge of academic language abilities, content knowledge and the application of the skills they imply, are essential to the success of my unit. I must understand where students are in terms of the basic principles of writing if they are going to write essays, research papers, persuasive essays and speeches. 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. To do this I will use informal as well as formal assessments. I will use basic class discussion to get a feel for where the most students are. Then to get specific individual levels, I will use a writing exercises to give them the opportunity to show me what they know in terms of practical application. I feel the written assignment should be graded, though not heavily weighted, so that students take it serious enough to give an accurate picture of their abilities and skills. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? This will tell me how better to fill in the gaps of their knowledge as well as help them come to better mastery of those skills. It will help me know where to begin my scaffolding and tell me where I should focus my energy in terms of filling in the deficiencies and differences in their skills and abilities. It will also tell me whether or not I go over any of the basic skills required for the assignment to ensure that all students are beginning the unit with the same knowledge and understanding, thereby making sure that no one gets left behind. Physical, Social and Emotional Development 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Physical, social and emotional developmental levels of students are important because they are an influence in how I teach my class and how students will react to it. This information will be important in dealing with how best to deliver the lesson and how best to have students manipulate the information in order to get a better grasp of it and make it their own. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–4 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Written assignments will be used as assessment here, while other physical and or mental disabilities of deficiencies will be taken into account also. I will have them write about a social event that they felt was important in their lives. Simple, in-class behavior observations will also be used as assessment to come to a clear understanding of their social and emotional level. These methods would help me focus on the group as a whole, as well as give me an individual blue print of what each student is really like. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Once received, I will use this information to prepare meaningful activities that will help them further develop the abilities that they bring into class. I will know what types of work and different pedagogical skills will be most beneficial to them. I will also learn to what extent using other modes , such as a kinesthetic, might be more useful than say a strictly aural mode might be. Of course the idea is to use all available modes, but by having a better understanding of my students, I will be able to really be effective in reaching them and having them take the lesson and really internalize it. Cultural and Health Considerations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? I definitely want to know of any health concerns that students might have. While writing is not a physically strenuous exercise, their health could definitely be a safety issue in the classroom. If one student took ill or required medical attention that we did not know about it would seriously disrupt the class and might cause confusion and fear in the other students. In terms of culture, this is a very important thing to learn about your students. It is important that you do not cross any cultural lines into what a student might consider “their space”. It’s important to make sure students feel comfortable and secure when in my classroom. 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. In terms of health issues, if the school has been alerted to a possible health issue with a child it is their responsibility to inform all teachers of any concerns that may cause. Understanding that this, however, is not always the case, the questionnaire will have questions regarding health. This is one of the best ways to learn this information as it does not draw attention to the students and does not single them out in any way. Cultural diversity is important and would be recorded on the questionnaire as well. This so that a certain amount of confidentiality can be reached in order for kids to not feel threatened by the question. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–5 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? The cultural applications are tremendous as it offers a wealth of subjects, experiences and activities from which to draw from. Using past experiences to help students, not only understand, but become more involved in work- by giving them something that they can relate to in terms of common knowledge and customs-is a very efficient way to get the attention of the students and to hold it for a longer period of time. Interests and Aspirations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Knowing about their interests and aspirations will help me bridge the gap between teacher and student. I would definitely want to know what they are interested in, who they admire and look up to. I want to know the kinds of music that they like and who they wish they could be. 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. I will extract this information by questionnaire and simple class discussion. I would be able to find out the kind of things they like by having them write about it in journal entries or by having them present a brief description of the person they admire. These methods will help me get a dialogue going between students and teacher as well as between students themselves. It is critical that these kids begin to open up and feel comfortable enough to be able to talk about these things because it is a part of who they are and is important to them. It will help me see them as people instead of little children. It will give them a 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? By keeping their interests and aspirations in mind, I have a better chance of reaching them and peaking their interest. This would help a tremendous amount in planning because then I do not have to search and guess for topics or jumping off points to peak their interests. Instead, I will be able to catch their interest quickly and efficiently, thereby, making the class run smoother. I will also use this information to engage the kids in discussions and persuasive speaking, to help them understand those skills better. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–6 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Step 2: Learning about Two Focus Students Directions: Select two focus students from the class you identified in Step 1. Select one student who is an English learner and one student who presents a different instructional challenge. Use some of the methods you described in Step 1 to learn about these two students and consider your selected content area and subject matter when describing what you learned about the two focus students. Complete the section below. In each box include: • a description of what you learned for each of the students, and • an explanation of how the information will influence your academic instructional planning. Student 1: An English learner Gender: Female Age: 1. Why did you select this student? This student presents unique challenges because she is from a cultural and linguistic background which I have very little familiarity. She is also an introverted child who does little talking both inside and outside the classroom. This makes it difficult to get an understanding of how well she grasps concepts and how well she manipulates them. She has few friends and is usually found alone during lunch and nutrition. This makes it difficult to learn how well she is progressing and how well she is learning. 2. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? This student has a linguistic background rooted in Russian. She spoke only Russian until the age of five. Her home language is Russian and even between siblings. Russian is the language of choice. She has little written Russian language skills and finds it hard to articulate her thoughts in any way. 3. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? In English, her academic abilities are quire poor. She is an ELD3 student. She is slow to pick up concepts and has trouble in dealing with her difficulties because she is so introverted. She never asks questions and seems to be unsure of any assignments of activities. Though she does speak with other students in the class, she is always the most quiet in a group. 4. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? This student has low content knowledge and skills. She has difficulty completing correct sentences. She often uses what seems to be Russian syntax in English usage. She has a hard time writing standard American English. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–7 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 5. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? Because she is not ver social, she has little opportunities to improve on her English skills, She confided in me that she had had a very bad experience with a teacher who very rudely told her to be quiet. Since then, she was shut herself down. Though she will respond very shyly, this is only when specifically called on and never when she feels pressured. 6. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? Her family comes directly from Russia. She was born there, and was brought to the US when she was five. The primary language between all family Appropriate members is Russian. She was not very well schooled in Russia and when she and relevant arrived here it has been difficult to find teachers that speak her primary information language. 7. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? While health issues are important in terms of classroom safety, for this lesson, they are not relevant to this lesson. 8. What did you learn about this student’s interest and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? This student seems interested in learning but very shy about it. She does not go out of her way to improve herself, in part due to a low self esteem and self worth. She gets embarrassed very easily and does her best to stay away from any questions that might be posed to her by students or teachers. Yet, she does do most of her work and does often answer specific questions in a one-on-one teacher to student setting. 9. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) This student is never late. She is always on time, and though not always prepared with homework, always brings materials (e.g. pen, paper) to class. She sits quietly and does not talk to anyone unless spoken to, and then will usually try to answer with a brief yes or no. She does not participate in any extra curricular activities. Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge. Gender: Female Age: 1. Why did you select this student? This student is very outgoing. She has many friends and is very intimidating to other students. They will do anything she says because she imposes herself on them. She is outspoken in class. She often speaks her mind rudely, and will do her best to get other students to defy the Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–8 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 teacher. She shows lack of respect for anyone who does not agree with her and is constantly trying to find social acceptance by making herself the center of attention during lessons. 2. How is the instructional challenge that he or she presents different from that of the other student? These students differ greatly in that they require some very specific, yet different attention from me on a regular basis. Because this class tends to be very talkative, Information it is difficult to get to either one on a daily basis to make sure that their academic too general needs are specifically met. Each one needs some very specialized individual attention. Thus it is a challenge to have both students in the same class and give them the adequate attention that they require. 3. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? This student’s home language is primarily English. Though it is a Hispanic home, Spanish tends to be the language which dealing with grandparents, but with parents English is predominant. She has little Spanish language skills and because English is predominant in her life. She feels that she knows how to speak it so she doesn’t see the importance of writing it. 4. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? This student’s academic language abilities are high. She understands concepts quickly and is eager to show her mastery at any given time, in a very vocal manner. She is not scared to ask questions and so her learning curve is very high. She will continue to ask questions until she feels sure of what to do. Then she will very quickly finish her work and then proceed to talk to others, and by doing so, disrupts them from their work. 5. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? This student is very knowledgeable in content area. Will be the first to answer any question based on content and will often try to add more to impress others. No implications She has very little skill. She has not learned how to apply the content even for though she has a basic understanding. She has difficulty in putting into practice instructional the standard American English for her writing and really doesn’t understand how planning that differs from everyday speech. 6. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? This student is very social. She is constantly speaking in an English-Spanish dialect, but does not understand the need for Standard American English. She is very mature, in emotional and physical stature, in comparison with other students. She is very bright but feels that school is somewhat of a waste of time. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–9 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 7. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? She comes from a family that has been established in East Los Angeles for two generations. Though Spanish is the language spoken to her grandparents. Between her parents, siblings and friends, English is predominant. Though this English is dialectic in that it often incorporates random Spanish words. 8. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? While health issues are important in terms of classroom safety, for this lesson, they are not relevant to this lesson. 9. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? This student, though she does enjoy learning, tries her best to “show up” the teacher. She will not admit that she enjoys class or even has learned anything, but has up until now, done most of the work. She gets very interested when a new topic of area of content is brought up for the first time. She gets tired of a subject quickly and requires that the teacher give up much of the time to let her make comments. The only aspiration she has for the class is, “I can’t wait ‘til I don’t have to come to this class anymore” 10. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) This student is very active socially. She is always busy with friends. She will ask everyday to be released to go to the restroom during class along with other students. She comes late to class often and never carries her own things. She always has someone else, usually a boy from class, carry her books. She expects other to give her paper and pens. She is very active in the school social scene. She is well known by all and finds that to be very important. Step 3: Planning for Academic Instruction for the Whole Class Directions: Consider your academic content selection in Step 1 and what would you want the students to learn? As you begin to think about a lesson that falls within the selected unit of study, respond to the prompts below about your plan for academic instruction for the whole class. 1. At what point in the sequence of the unit is this lesson? Put an X next to one: ___at the beginning of the unit of study _x_between the beginning and the end of the unit of study ___at the end of the unit of study Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–10 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 2. BMC #46033831 List the state-adopted academic content standard(s) for students you will address in the lesson. 2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics) Standards ELA 2.3 Write research reports; a. Pose tightly drawn questions about the topic b. Convey clear and accurate perspectives on the subject c. Include evidence compiled through the formal research process (e.g. use of card catalogue, Reader’s Guide to Periodical Literature, a computer catalogue, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries) d. Document reference sources by means of footnotes and bibliography. 3. What is (are) your academic learning goal(s)? What specifically do you expect students to know or be able to do as a result of the lesson? From this lesson students will be able to put together a bibliography of various Lesson types of reference materials that include but are not restricted to newspaper goals articles, magazine articles, books, internet web sites, encyclopedias, dictionaries, and CD-Roms. How is (are) your academic learning goal(s) related to the state-adopted academic content standards for students? My academic goal for this lesson will ensure that students understand how to meet the State Standard for Writing Applications (2.3d). That is, that students will be able to “Document reference sources by means of footnotes and bibliography.” It will also ensure that they are able to complete the end of unit assessment which is to write a complete research paper that includes a well bibliography. Goals and standards connected 4. published 5. How will the content of the lesson build on what the students already know and are able to do? By this time in the lesson, we have gone through the lessons that deal Content of specifically with how to write a proper introductory paragraph for a research lesson paper. We have talked about the form the paragraph should take, and how the provided introduction should be used to get the reader involved by using a question, a surprising statement, or anecdote to draw the reader in. We have modeled all of this in class as we are writing a simple example paper as a class. They have, the day before, decided on a thesis statement for our practice paper. They have come to understand the basic principles of research and what it is they are looking for in terms of finding an answer to a thesis statement. We have also gone through the various ways that research can help a paper, by introducing, supporting or denying certain facts and assumptions that are made. Why teach this lesson on bibliography now instead of at the end of the unit?” If they were to wait until the end, after all the writing and research has been done, then more than likely they would not have taken proper notes and would be forced to either look up that information again, or they would make it up. I have been teaching them that integrity Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–11 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction is important in their writing and so to say that they would have to do all that work again or be forced to make it up wouldn’t be fare to them. Therefore this lesson must come before they have to do the actual research so that they may know what type of information they need to document their research correctly. 6. How will the content of the lesson connect to the content of preceding and subsequent lessons? In this part of the lesson, they will learn how to document that research, to prove to anyone that may read their work, that they have indeed used reliable sources to find their evidence. Thereby making their argument stronger. They will learn how to properly annotate their papers to give full credit to those they choose to quote or paraphrase. They will Content of be able to put together a strong, well organized bibliography of their work and lesson are able to explain how they put it together. They will also come to know the provided importance keeping track of their own research so that they become better organized, and therefore more efficient in their work. After this, part of the lesson we will move on to learn how to work on the body of an essay and the various forms that that may take. We will continue after that into the conclusion and how to wrap things up at the end of this type of essay. The final culminating task for the unit is to have them write their own research paper, which includes a complete and correctly annotated bibliography. 7. What difficulties do you anticipate students could have with the lesson content and why? One of the difficulties that I am forced to deal with in this part of the unit is boredom. Because the bibliography is so matter of fact I must come up with a way to engage them actively and not just have them listen to a lecture. Therefore, I must break the lesson up into smaller mini-lessons in order to give the students the time to work in groups and on their own throughout the lesson. For instance, the way to show works cited for a Anticipates web page is very different than showing what a book citing should look like. difficulties Therefore, I would teach them one, have them practice briefly and then teach them the next form. This will be difficult since we have a little time that I would have to organize it in a very tight way in order to get through all of what we needed to do. Another difficulty may be that when students are allowed to work in groups they begin to chit chat about other things. While this is always a hurdle to overcome, I must make sure that the work they do in groups requires that all have a specific task so that no one is allowed to sit and not be an active part of the lesson. 8. What evidence will you collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson that will show the extent to which the students have learned what you intended? In order to formally assess the students progress, I will need to collect specific evidence that will prove that they have a good grasp of the lesson. I will do this by having students build an informal bibliography page for me in class. I call it informal because it Vague for will be a handwritten draft that will show the work they have done in class. For “monitoring” the final unit assessment it must be typed. They will have to make a bibliography for me during the lesson using books, dictionaries, encyclopedia, web sites and CD-ROMs. These will be turned in as a rough draft with the rest of their final research work at the end Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–12 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 of the unit. I will assess progress through the lesson by monitoring and having students monitor each other. They will also do peer editing to help each other familiarize the lesson. 9. Think about how you will sequence your instruction of the academic content to be covered in this lesson. Describe your plan for instruction in the order in which it will be implemented. Address each of the following and provide a rationale for each of your decisions: • Communicating the academic learning goal(s) to the students • Instructional strategies • Student activities • Student grouping • Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room • Progress monitoring of student learning Instruction Plan Communicating the Academic learning Goals to Students On the overhead projector I will display an image taken from a 1936 Boy Scout handbook that says, “In case of large laceration, use a turnicate just above the cut to stop the flow of blood.” I will then stop to ask if this is true or not, and ask if anyone has any opinion on the matter. We’ll discuss it a bit more and then I will remove it and place another transparency on the projector. This time the subject is the same but it does not say the same thing. Now it says, “in case of laceration where there is severe bleeding, do not use a turnicate. Rather, apply pressure to the wound and seek immediate professional help.” I will ask, “which of these should you follow?” Then we will discuss how it is important to find the most up to date and accurate information possible I order to value an argument. “Likewise, when we are dealing with research it is up to us to find the most up to date information that can be found. We need to use that information correctly so that people can Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. Rationale The reason for beginning this lesson in this fashion is two fold. First, I want to get there attention with something that is not complicated but something that we can all identify with. To help others in need, is a universal feeling that everyone feels regardless of race, religion or culture. It’s also good to teach them some kind of first aid as it makes them more able citizens. The second reason is that it makes for a surprising introduction that is sure to get their attention and their focus in an instant. Showing both of these transparencies will also help them understand that information can not always be trusted at first glance. As students doing research they should be aware that when they are asked to support their claims they must be able to do so with reliable sources, that means more than one modern source. Purposefully connected strategies and rationale 831–13 BMC #46033831 believe our argument and really understand what we are trying to say. We must also show them where we get our information and this is done using a bibliography.” Then, I will pass out a hand out that shows the correct form (MLA style) for citing works of various kinds of media. Once all the students have it, I will have each of them open up their textbooks. I will model for them exactly where all the publishing, copy write and title information are found. I will pause to ask if there are any questions. I will answer those questions and then continue on to citing dictionaries and encyclopedias, since they are similar. After this, I will stop for questions. Once all questions have been answered and any issues resolved. I will have students write down their own bibliography page by having them use the classroom library to find the important information necessary to cite a work used in research. They will work in groups and help each other find the required information. CalTPA–Designing Instruction Then comes straight forward delivery of the material content. This is important because I want to make sure I reach all of my students regardless of the mode of learners they are (kinesthetic, aural, visual, etc.). To this end, they are handed out a worksheet so that visual learners can watch as I do they examples on the board, kinesthetic learners can have a copy in their hand to follow, aural learners can listen, but like most students, the more modes of input we receive information in the better we remember, recall and use that information. These are some of the ways that I try to accommodate all types of learners in my classroom. Having them work together in groups of four is another accommodation that I feel is important. While most teachers tend to believe that to learn you need to Then, I will show them on the board how write more, I believe that writing is just to cite web pages and CD-Rom’s. All of as much a social activity. That is, that this they will be able to follow on the very rarely do we ever write for board as well as on the handout given to ourselves. Most people write for them earlier. They will then have to others to see. Therefore, it is good to follow the model that I have given them get feedback from those around you as by writing a citing for several web pages well as the teacher. It also teachers that will be printed and handed out in hard kids social skills that are so necessary copy form. in today’s world. Then I will also show them how to make citations cards for there research. This is simply using a 3x5 card to write the quote on one side and the work cited information on the other, that way, you know exactly where you got each individual quote and you do not have to search for it when you are making your Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. The reason that each person is going to have their own paper with all their entries is because I need to see a true assessment of what they can do, whether it be his own individual work with no help or his work while being helped. It is important that students learn to find the help they need, and 831–14 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction bibliography for your own research paper. This they will do with only a few citations so that they have a few for reference. BMC #46033831 equally as important is to let them find it in a positive way. Because so many jobs now require that you are able to work in groups in a positive way, in All of these should be on the same page as which you are expected to interact it is evidence of their grasping the agree and produce something, kids concepts that we are going over. This will should have the opportunity to begin to be collected and all students will be experience that even now, in the 7th responsible for turning it in. It will be grade. collected at the end of the lesson and will be given back to them on the following day of class with feedback, if any is required. Instructional Strategies During the lesson I will be presenting the content in various forms. First I will be speaking. This giving aural learners the ability to understand in clear and precise definitions and vocabulary. I will also be accommodating kinesthetic learner by having them mirror what I do as well as giving them a handout to ensure that they have something available for them to hold on to as well as listen. For visual learners, both the hand out and the work that I am showing on the board and overhead will help them come to a better understanding. I will also be using PowerPoint presentations. All student will be participating in at least these three type of input thereby strengthening their ability to understand, accept and synthesize the information being given. Once that has taken place they will be given the opportunity to try it first hand, but again, I will be there monitoring, facilitating and ensuring that students understand what their role and assignment is. The strategies that I have chosen are the most adequate, appropriate and efficient way of getting this content across to these students. It is a method that that has been successful before in teaching this type of content. It requires active listening and participation just the 7th grade Speaking and Listening standards require. Yet, it does not lock them into that one form of learning. It also give them the opportunity to listen watch and read about the content. The PowerPoint presentation will also help in drawing the students into the lesson since most of them are very excited about technology in the classroom. It allows for them to be able to think through the content and really ask any questions that might come up to them. This questioning period is as long as the lesson, for thought the lesson they are given ample opportunity to not only ask but to bring up any concerns of thoughts that they may have, even if those questions and comments are made to other students. That is still a valuable form of enrichment and learning. Student Activities Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–15 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Here, the student activities ensure that Students will have the opportunity to go students receive the same content in through many types of activities that various ways. They begin by listening range from active listening to class and then by touching and reading discussion to group activities. In the along, then they are free to explore the beginning of the content on their own when they are Develop mentally lesson, when students asked to follow the model given to appropriate are more apt to sit still them so that they can work through it strategy for a few minutes, they on their own. They are able to interact will be actively engaged in listening to the and help each other, which is more into activity for the lesson. Then as the efficient than having a 40 minute period moves along they are able to get lecture. Clearly these activities would more actively involved until by the end of build on the students knowledge from the lesson they are entirely in control of simple listening to actively being themselves. The will progress from engaged in the practice of the content. observers to teachers as they are put into groups they should be helping each other and making sure that everyone in their group is understanding the concepts being used. Student Grouping Students will begin the lesson in as individual observers and steadily move from that to active members in a group with a common goal. That goal is to have all students not only be familiar with, but be able to create their own bibliography to the best of the abilities and have it be an acceptable work. They will in the end, be working in groups of four. Having student work in groups is by far the best method for having student learn. It somehow keeps them actively engaged when there are meaningful things for them to put their efforts into. Groups of four seem to be just the right size for me. If the group is too small, there tends to be a lull throughout the day witch defeats the purpose of the group. Too many students and the group will not function properly because to much chatting will go on. Four is the ideal for my way of keeping things under control in the classroom and seems to be the most efficient and comfortable number for students to work in a group. propriate materials for achieving learning goals Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Materials, technology and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room. For this lesson I will require: • PC with PowerPoint installed, and LCD projector and screen • An overhead projector The material range from traditional to technology drive to help accommodate for all types of learners. From simple copied pages to having student operate 831–16 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction • BMC #46033831 • • • • • • Transparency of the page for lesions and cuts from the Boy Scouts Handbook, 1936 Transparency of the page for lesions and cuts from the Boy Scouts Handbook, 2000 Six books from class library for each group of four children White board Copies for all students of the MLA page for works cited Overhead Markers, white board markers Students homework from the previous night; bring in a magazine book or comic book of your choice. the PowerPoint presentation can help to bring in the students attention. All are very necessary to ensure that kids get the same input from a variety of sources to increase the chances of understanding, and practicality so that they can take the content and make it their own. In this way the content becomes the catalyst for synthesis and then they are able not only to understand the concepts that are given, but they can manipulate them to their advantage. This shows higher levels of thinking and is what we really want our students to achieve. Progress monitoring Throughout the lesson student progress will be monitored from the beginning through to the end of the unit. Students will be observed and encouraged to actively participate throughout the lesson. They will be expected to ask pertinent questions and will also be monitored throughout the group work period as well. This will ensure that all students are understanding and able to follow along and comprehend the content presented. Monitoring for all students Student will be observed throughout the lesson to ensure that they are comprehending and are indeed able to use the content appropriately at the end of the lesson. They will be monitored to ensure that they stay on task and are active participants in the group they are a part of. They will be asked to prove their comprehension by way of tuning in the assignment at the end of the lesson and the will need to reproduce a bibliography at the end of the unit so that they are helped throughout the assignment not only by the teacher but by their peers also. 10. Given the difficulties you anticipate students could have with the content, what additional steps would you take to foster access and comprehension for all students? I would ensure access and comprehension by all students by using the Provided following types of accommodations. Students will be working in small groups. for They will be able to discuss their work in the groups before any other difficulties discussion might take place or they present in front of the class. They will be and listening to the teacher read aloud. I will give them key vocabulary and give an comm. type of organizational chart (handout) so that student have something in their with hands to reflect on. I will have used an overhead projector, PowerPoint families presentation, and white board to ensure that students have had ample input of the content and in various forms. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–17 BMC #46033831 11. CalTPA–Designing Instruction How would you share the results of student academic learning with students and families? Students will receive their bibliographies back in the following day so they Provided may use it as reference for their own research paper’s bibliography. They for difficulties must be able to follow what is there and reproduce it, in terms of it accuracy and and level of authorship. These results will be available for them to use so comm. that they may improve upon it and ask any questions they have regarding it. with So that by the time they are ready to turning their research papers, they will families have had several opportunities to clarify any questions, misconceptions or errors they might have had. The final grade for the research paper and that grade will be shared with parents through grade reports given based on the research project itself. Step 4: Lesson Adaptations for the Two Focus Students Directions: Consider what you have learned about the two focus students in Step 2 and the implications for instruction that you identified for each of them. For the two students, determine what adaptations you will make to this lesson that you have planned for the whole class. Describe those adaptations for each of the two focus students. If you determine that no adaptations are needed for a part of the plan for instruction, indicate that decision. Complete the table below. In each box include: • your decisions about lesson adaptations, and • a rationale for those decisions. Student 1: An English learner 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. I expect the student to be able to reach the same goals as the rest of the class. That is, to be able to make a bibliography/Works Cited page that will be a part of their research report. However, I may have to accommodate by giving more one-on-one time to the student. It might also be require that I go through another example with her so that she feels that she has grasped enough of the assignment to begin on her own. Then, by closely monitoring the student I can assure that she is understanding the concepts. This may take a while longer, but this accommodation would be granted on a need basis, as I want the student to aim for doing the work in the same time-frame as rest of the class. I see no reason why she would not be able to do the required state standards task, since she has no problems with cognitive skills or the like. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–18 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 2. BMC #46033831 Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson At the end of the lesson, I will ask this student if they have had ample time to complete their bibliography. If She was not done, then she would be permitted to have more time to accomplish the task. Because the student has a what is primarily considered a language problem (she does not have fluency in English) then the extra time should be able to enough to reflect the time it would take her to accomplish the same task. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. Because this student would require extra personal attention from the instructor and other student to complete her task, I will spend a bit more time with her both during the beginning of the exercise to ensure that she knows what is expected of her. I would pay more attention to her throughout the activity and then also, have a brief personal interview to make sure that she is given ample time and knowledge to complete the task. This would be communicated mainly by the work she has done up to the end of class time and by verbal communication between she and I. In this way, I would be able to clearly assess whether she knows the purpose and goal for the assignment to be able to finish it on her own. Instructional strategies The instructional activities outlined above are clearly meant to give every student the opportunity to have various types of input so that the majority of student will Absence be able to comprehend the lesson. This student might require one-on-one of activity with the teacher or might request it from another student. Whichever rationale the student is most comfortable with is the one that she would have access too. It is also possible that both might be beneficial, and as long as the student is comfortable with it, every effort will be made to accommodate this for her. Student Activities This students activities will begin with the active listening part of the lesson. Understanding that her ELD3 level will prevent her from comprehending from a purely verbal communication, the various other instructional activities including, but not confined to use of visual aids, handouts, oral, aural and kinesthetic forms of getting the information to her will help her to come to a higher level of comprehension. She will also be expected to work in a group of other students that can also help guide her through the process so that she comes to full comprehension. In these groups she will be actively participating in correcting, and editing other students work as well as verbally communicating her answers to other students. While she may have some trouble in doing so, the experience of working in a small group with peers can be very beneficial to her as a way of practicing in a non threatening way. Student grouping Inside the group of four, she would be the editor. In this role she does not have to do a lot of talking, but I can ensure that she understands the task and can help others in doing it. She will also be able to talk to other students when they are not doing the work correctly. 3. 4. 5. 6. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–19 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction It helps her speech in that she does not have a wide range of topics to discuss, but rather a focused choice of vocabulary is required. This may help the student feel more confident bout her role and in her own everyday speech. This specialized vocabulary will help her as she searched for words to express the errors and mistakes she sees. 7. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room Using A/V equipment will help this student because it will require repetition. It will enable me to go over the same material in a fresh new way. Because of this, this student will be able to view the quick lecture given at the beginning of the session thereby having an additional way of learning the information. This will help her as she does not have a mentally incapacitation problems, rather it is her understanding of English that would be the cause of trouble for her. The A/V using the PC will help her take in the information by sight rather than just by listening. It is a strengthening tool for her. Likewise, the group work will help support her in another way. Learning how to write is a social process and therefore requires that interaction. 8. Progress monitoring of student learning Throughout the lesson this student’s progress will be monitored from the beginning, through to the end. She will be observed By the teacher as well as other students. She will be expected to actively participate through the lesson. The monitoring will also be performed by the group that she is assigned to. This monitoring by the group is innate in that the groups will be revising and editing each others work. The student will feel comfortable because she will not feel that she is being directly monitored by other Progress students. The teacher will also monitor and observe while next to the student and monitoring from a distance so that she does not feel like she is being watched anymore than is vague anyone else. I will do this because I do not want the student to feel inferior in any way. 9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family The student will receive her bibliography back on the following day with notes telling her of any major changes that need to be made. She will then be able to use that format on her final end of the unit culminating task, which is to write a research paper that includes the bibliography page. She must be able to follow that format and reproduce it, in terms of its accuracy and level of authorship. The research paper will not be completed to close to this assignment so that soon after so they she will have had several opportunities to clarify any questions, misconceptions or errors on the bibliography itself. The final grade Accommodations for the research paper will be shared with parent through grade reports give not specific to based on the research project itself. As well as having grade information posted needs o f FS. in the room. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–20 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. Some This student would be required to complete the state standards task in its rationale entirety as the rest of the class. However, because this student tends to clear and complete tasks very quickly, I will give her the additional task of being her appropriate. group leader. As all students are working in groups, group leaders would Others ensure that all group members complete their work as accurate as possible. vague or This would give the student the opportunity to not only revise her own work, absent. but learn the importance of it in a group setting. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson This student would be required to turn in her own accurate work. She would also be required to initial the papers of other students in her group to show that she was directly responsible for helping others find their mistakes and correct them. In this way, her group can benefit from her skills and knowledge and at the same time she would feel that she is doing something meaningful and worth while. Also, her attitude in class should change from one of being disruptive to being helpful I getting other students to complete the required task. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. The student would be very verbal about her progress as well as her groups work. She will constantly be assessing her own work and the work of others. The goal and expectations would be clear to see in her work, both written and orally. Because this student tends to talk a lot, it will be quite easy to ascertain her understanding of the expectations and goals set forth in the appropriate state standards. Instructional strategies Here to, the student should have had enough input to comprehend what is expected and required of her in the instructional activities outlined in the lesson. Before she ever goes into the group she will have heard the same information modeled for her in three different ways. Here however, teacher monitoring is important. To keep her on task, she will be assessing continually to ensure that she is on task and taking responsibility for her own education as well as helping others with theirs. For the most part, in previous lessons she has been observed to be very helpful to other students and has done her best to do so. Because of this, there really is no reason to think that she will not fulfill her obligations toward her group. Student Activities This students activities will begin the same as the others. She will be required to listen actively and then to participate in class discussion. After this however, her role would be that of facilitator for her group. In this way she can benefit from seeing a d=wide variety of student work so that she can come to a better understanding of what she must do. Also, 2. 3. 4. 5. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–21 BMC #46033831 CalTPA–Designing Instruction she helping other students to improve their skills. As she helps them, she will be sharpening her own skills and honing them. By being the leader of her group she would be actively involved in making sure that the work is being done correctly and that it is being done efficiently. 6. Student grouping This student will be the leader of her group of four students. She will definitely be in charge of making sure that all other students are working and doing their work appropriately. She will also be the last person to go over everyone’s paper to ensure the accuracy. In this way not only is she helping others, but also sharpening her own skills to the point that other students will not. This of depends on her own motivation, but I will certainly encourage her to do so. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room The A/V information for her will be a stimulant into the lesson. It will help keep her own task and focused. She will be able to listen to the instruction several times, ensuring that she understands before she goes to work. It will also ensure that she is going what she should in terms of helping to her students in her group. It will give her the confidence to be able to look at her own work a second time and be able to improve it. All of the material would have been modeled for her several times. Progress monitoring of student learning Throughout the lesson students progress will be monitored by both actively being engaged by the teacher as well as being engaged by other students. Though in this case, the student may be the one observing other students also, that also is a way of monitoring her. This will be done to ensure that she is on task and involved in the lesson. Because she shows signs of a short attention span, being able to divert her attention to another student work will help her keep her mind on the task at hand and will also enable other students to benefit from her speed in learning new things. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family This student will receive her bibliography back on the following day wit notes telling her of any major changes that need to be made. She will then be able to use that format on her final end of the unit culminating task, which is to write a research paper that includes the bibliography page. She must be able to follow that format and reproduce it, in terms of its accuracy and level of authorship. The research paper will not be completed to close to this assignment so that soon after so they she will have had several opportunities to clarify any questions, misconceptions or errors on the bibliography itself. The final grade for the research paper will be shared with parents through grade reports given based on the research project itself. As well as having grade information posted in the room. 7. 8. 9. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 831–22 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Step 5: Reflection on Connecting Instructional Planning to Student Characteristics Directions: Read your responses to the prompts in Steps 1-4. Think about what you have learned in Task 2 about the characteristics of the two focus students, your instructional planning for the whole class, and your adaptations for the focus students. Respond to the prompts below: 1. What information that you collected for the whole class and/or for the two focus students most influenced your planning for this lesson? Why? For this particular lesson the most important thing that influenced this lesson was all of my students ability to write and understand English. Their use of the language was critical to understanding the concept of being able to organize a bibliography and to take down the information necessary to do it successfully. Without understanding their writing skills and there ability to organize, it would have been impossible for me to actually ascertain how to go about teaching it. Finding that I had both student1 and student2 in class made it a challenge to come up with a lesson that would cater to both extremes of higher and lower level students. In other words, I find that I have to accommodate all levels in each lesson if I am to be as successful as I would like. Though this requires more work in planning on my part, I feel that it forces me to be a better teacher as I am more aware of my students needs and am trying to accommodate them so that everyone has an opportunity to learn and no one gets left behind. How will you use what you have learned in regard to connecting instructional planning to student characteristics in the future? In your response, you may address collecting student information and/or planning instruction based on student information. I will get as much information that I can about my students in order to help plan Reflection meaningful lessons that will help me reach them in as many levels as possible. I is cursory. will continue to find information about them that will help me plan my lessons to suit their needs and wants. This will become a common way for me to teach my lessons and plan them. I will use student characteristics in planning my lessons and connect it directly with instructional planning so that I can best serve my students in the areas that most affect them. It is the only way that I can directly influence and get my lessons across to my kids. I see that without this information I am at a loss I terms of really being able to help my kids. I see this now more clearly than ever before. Collecting the information in various forms I think is the best. Collection of this kind of data can and should be done regularly and in varying forms. 2. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. JCopyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 831–23 CalTPA—ROE BENCHMARK CASE Designing Instruction BMC #46033831 Grade: 7 Content Area: English Evidence Subject Matter: English 7 A/B Interpretations of Evidence GS : goals are appropriate, clear, and connected to standards LAS: varied by limited methods mostly relevant information GS (Establishing Goals/Standards): K-12 SACS listed for English. Unit of study described. Academic learning goals listed. LAS (Learning About Students): Information collected from questionnaire, freewriting exercise, class discussion. Some information general. Some repetitive information. PFI (Planning for Instruction): Addressed all aspects of instruction plan in detail (methods relating to learning styles; student activities and grouping; overheads and handouts; modeling). Context of lesson provided. Progress monitoring described as observation and questioning. MA (Making Adaptations): Some adaptations for students with special needs (longer time, AV, modalities). Rationale provided for most adaptations. PFI: appropriate strategies and activities planned to meet goals and standards plan for monitoring somewhat general MA: appropriate, accurate, and relevant adaptations PS (Using Subject-specific Pedagogical Skills): P S: Variety of strategies/activities described appropriate and relevant PS (modalities, active listening, small groups, whole class discussion, handouts). Anticipates difficulties Instructional plan reflects goals. R (Reflecting): Connects S(s) information to lesson planning. General reflection on future planning. R: general reflection on future planning Summary Statement – There is clear evidence provided by the teacher candidate for the TPE domains assessed in this task. Score: 3 Copyright © 2001, 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 Step 1: Academic Content Selection and Learning about Students Directions: An important step in planning instruction is to learn about your students. Select one class, content area, and the state-adopted academic content standards for students to work with at this time. Respond to the prompts below about the class, unit of study, and how you learn about the students. A. Academic Content Selection Grade Level: Content area: Subject matter: 10th Mathematics Algebra A/B 1. List the state-adopted academic content standards for students that you will cover at this time. 5.0 Students solve multi-step problems, including word problems involving linear equations in one variable. 6.0 Students graph a linear equation and compute x,y intercepts. SACSs 7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a line, given an equation of a line. listed 2. Describe the unit of study that addresses those standards. The unit is traditional in form and is all about linear equations. It starts off by graphing points, computing slope, drawing lines in y= form, substituting values in the equations, finding x,y intercepts, and then working with equations in point-slope form. 3. What is (are) the academic learning goal(s) for this unit of study? Make an equation into “y=” form Find x,y intercepts using graphs and equations Discern if points lie on a line given the equation Go from point-slope form to “y= form” Graph equations Class Information Age range of students: 14 - 16 Number of male students: 9 Goals listed Total number of students: 18 Number of female students: 9 Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–1 BMC #00371268 B. Student Characteristics Linguistics Background CalTPA–Designing Instruction 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? What was their first language? What language is spoken at home? How much English do they know? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. limited A CUM File, talking to them personally, looking at their work. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Modify my lesson to reduce the number of linguistic problems the student might face. vague Scaffold them during the lesson with visuals and other comprehensible input. Academic Language Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Skills 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? How well can they read in this context? What is their level of comprehension? How much knowledge do they have in this area? Are they able to do routine things in this content area? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. lacks detail Assess their written work, ask what the text is saying, ask their previous content teacher. See report cards, give preliminary tests. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? It will determine if I have to explicitly define content vocabulary or not. It will determine if I have to review related material. Physical, Social, and Emotional Development 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Have they been exposed to content? Do they have a particular content disability? Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 268–2 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Look at their CUM file, conduct a personal interview, talk with their parents. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? It will determine whether or not certain activities are appropriate considering their level vague of development. Cultural and Health Considerations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Does the culture value the content? Does the family support learning? How is their home life? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. cursory Do individual research, speak with the parents, visit them at home. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? I may chose to include multicultural aspects to the lesson if they feel ambiguous disconnected from the content. Interests and Aspirations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Do they want to pursue a career in this field? Do they want to go to college? 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Ask them what they want to be? Ask them what they feel about the usefulness of the content. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? It will inform me as to what possible future activities will likely interest the student. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–3 BMC #00371268 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Step 2: Learning about Two Focus Students Directions: Select two focus students from the class you identified in Step 1. Select one student who is an English learner and one student who presents a different instructional challenge. Use some of the methods you described in Step 1 to learn about these two students. Consider your selected content areas and subject matter when describing what you learned about the two focus students. Complete the section below. In each box include: • a description of what you learned for each of the students, and • an explanation of how the information will influence your academic instructional planning. Student 1: An English learner Gender: Age: Male 16 1. Why did you select this student? First of all, he is an English learner. Secondly, he was having a lot of difficulty reading and understanding directions given in the math book. He had the ability to do the math, but he had English difficulties. 2. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? In the home the only language that is spoken is Spanish. That is not surprising since he and his family immigrated from Mexico only two years ago. In school, he speaks both languages. He speaks English, but not “voluntarily” based on my observation. 3. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? I would have to say that his academic language abilities need a lot of improvement. Limited He has difficulty getting to work a lot of the time because he does not understand language what he is being asked to do. Over the past two weeks, I’ve had to explain several assessment math terms to him including the following: slope, X/Y intercept, vertical, methods horizontal, slope-intercept form, etc. These are terms that serve as the foundation of the current chapter and he cannot comprehend their meaning by reading them. 4. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? The level of his content knowledge and skill are in sharp contrast to his academic language. His knowledge and skills are amazing. Once he is told what he is supposed to do or what the words mean, he is capable of finishing problems at a rapid pace and with great accuracy. He tends to be one of the few students that finish assignments on time. This assessment fits in perfectly with the observations my cooperating teacher related to me. He noted that the student was very bright, but the language was holding him back. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 268–4 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 5. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? Physical: This student said that he is currently living with the families of two Informal uncles. Under these conditions, I assume that he does not have a lot of space to (observation) work which may be a development issue. methods o f Social: The class is divided into several groups. He is the only person in the assessm ent; no formal class to be sitting by himself in his own group. I have yet to see him talk to language another student in the class. I can only wonder if he simply doesn’t have any assessm ent friends in this particular class. Emotional: I am not aware of any emotional issues that this student might have. I am basing this on his CUM, my observations, and my cooperating teacher’s comments. 6. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? This student obviously has a rich Mexican heritage, especially considering that he moved here from Jalisco, a very patriotic part of Mexico. According to his CUM file, he has two younger siblings registered in the school district. His father is a painter so he probably uses some mathematical concepts in his work. His mother is a housewife and may push him to get his school work done. And as I mentioned before, the crowded nature of the home may impair his mathematical development. 7. What did you learn about this student’s special consideration, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? This student has absolutely no special considerations other than language. He has no IEP or any physical disability that may interfere with his mathematical education. 8. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? When I sat down to talk to him, I asked if he intended on going to college and he responded that he wanted to go into the computer field. I later went through his CUM file and made a astonishing discovery. In the elective section of his SBJH registration form, it was indicated that he would like to take “Technological Industry and Computers.” He evidently has had his mind on this for while. If he is to enter these fields, he will require substantial mathematical knowledge. 9. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) During the course of the interview, I discovered that he moved to the US after completing 7th grade. I asked him what he was studying in math before his departure and he said he was studying Algebra and linear equations. It therefore appears that it has taken 2 years for him to reach the same level of mathematics! The student even commented on this exact same thing. He perceptively identified that the reason he was put into a lower math class despite his abilities was because of his language issues. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–5 BMC #00371268 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge. Gender: Female Age: 16 1. Why did you select this student? I chose this student because I believe she is “hiding out.” This means that she is methodically trying to avoid being held accountable for her learning. 2. How is the instructional challenge that he or she presents different from that of the other student? The other student (an English learner) is a challenge in terms of the way I deliver the instruction. With this student, on the other hand, I must modify my lesson to primarily engage the student and to hold her accountable for learning it. 3. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? I learned that the first language this student learned was Spanish from having conversations with the student. I also learned that the primarily language spoken at home is Spanish. A glance through the Home Language Survey verified this information. She stated that it was not until the 3rd or 4th grade that she began to acquire a lot of English proficiency. 4. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? This student has shown to be very weak in terms of academic language abilities. She has taken a year of Algebra already (and failed it) and she cannot remember or understand some of the most fundamental words in early Algebra. During my first few weeks to the classroom, she often stated that she didn’t know what was being asked of her. For example, she did not know what “slope, y-intercepts, and to be a solution of an equation” meant. I’ve had to devote a lot of time translating the academic language. 5. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? She seems to have substantial content knowledge and skills. She seems to know a lot about what is going to be presented to the class. I’ve heard her say, “Oh, I know that” to her neighbor on a couple of occasions. Not only that, but I have seen her make motions with her hand that correspond to solutions before the teacher articulates them. In terms of skills, she is able to solve equations for a particular variable. I have seen her follow the rules to solving linear equations frequently. 6. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? Physically speaking, she has no developmental problems that would hinder her ability to learn or do the material. I believe that she has had enough social exposure to mathematics. I’ve discovered that she likes to shop and she must definitely use mathematics for that. One day, I witnessed her Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 268–6 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 relating a dilemma to her friend about whether she should buy a pair of shoes or a shirt and shorts. This purchasing decision definitely shows social use of mathematics. Emotional development is my only area of concern. She did not pass the class last year and I wonder if that has any bearing on her emotional state in this class. She may have issues that affect her performance in this class. However, I have not seen any behavior that would support my concerns at this time. 7. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? Her parents were immigrants from Mexico. One of our conversations revealed that both of them did not finish high school. This may imply that they do not have the ability to help their daughter with her school work. It may also be a reason on the part of the student to avoid work since high school wasn’t necessary for her parents. I also discovered that she is the oldest of the five kids. This fact may or may not be an issue. It would be an issue if she has to take care of them consistently which would limit the amount of time she dedicates to Algebra. It may also be a factor if she has no “sanctuary” to be alone and work on her homework. 8. What did you learn about this student’s special consideration, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? According to the CUM file and her, there exists no special considerations. She is perfectly healthy both physically and mentally. She has no IEP nor 504 plan. 9. What did you learn about this student’s interests and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? One of the interests she has that I noted earlier was shopping. If she is to shop, she must be aware of the mathematics surrounding it so that she becomes a wise shopper. Sometimes Algebra is needed in order to figure out which deal is the best, how must will financing costs, etc. At this moment in time, she has no firm career plans. She does, however, want to get a job soon, probably at a fast food place. I told her that she is likely to become a cashier and that she will be doing a lot of arithmetic. Even though she may not be employing Algebraic ideas, she will be using mathematics consistently. Proper use of math will ensure that she is never short on her drawer. 10. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) I noticed on the class information sheet that she has not been absent very often. This is a good thing for content understanding since mathematics continually builds upon itself. The concern is how to engage her so that she does learn while she’s in school. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–7 BMC #00371268 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Step 3: Planning for Academic Instruction for the Whole Class Directions: Consider your academic content selection in Step 1 and what would you want the students to learn? As you begin to think about a lesson that falls within the selected unit of study, respond to the prompts below about your plan for academic instruction for the whole class. 1. At what point in the sequence of the unit is this lesson? Put an X next to one: ___at the beginning of the unit of study _x_between the beginning and the end of the unit of study ___at the end of the unit of study List the state-adopted academic content standard(s) for students you will address in the lesson. 6.0 Students graph an equation and compute x,y intercepts. What is (are) your academic learning goal(s)? What specifically do you expect students to know or be able to do as a result of the lesson? Students will graph an equation in “y=” and compute both the x and y intercepts. How is (are) your academic learning goal(s) related to the state-adopted academic content standards for students? They are very similar. My learning goals are to graph a particular type of equation (like in the content standards) and I also require them to calculate the intercepts as stated in the content standards. How will the content of the lesson build on what the students already know and are able to do? Students are already familiar with the Cartesian plane, making T charts, and solving simply 1-2 step equations in one variable. That is all that is required to meet my learning goals. How will the content of the lesson connect to the content of preceding and subsequent lessons? The lesson builds on the work that students did earlier in the section. They plotted points in the plane and now they will learn how to get points from particular equations with a T chart. In the following lessons, they will use this knowledge to be able to graph other equations that are not in the very familiar “y=” form. What difficulties do you anticipate students could have with the lesson content and why? I think that they will have trouble filing out the T-chart because they have weak limited foundations in terms of performing the four arithmetic operations on positive and link to prior negative numbers. This means that they will get incorrect points on their chart. knowledge Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 268–8 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 8. BMC #00371268 What evidence will you collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson that will show the extent to which the students have learned what you intended? The following day I will collect their homework to assess how well they met the learning goals. This homework will come directly from the state-adopted text book. During the lesson I will informally assess them by asking each student questions as their progress vague completing the homework. Think about how you will sequence your instruction of the academic content to be covered in this lesson. Describe your plan for instruction in the order in which it will be implemented. Address each of the following and provide a rationale for each of your decisions: • • • • • • 9. Co mmunica ting the academic lea rning goal(s) to the students Instructional strategies Student Activities Student g roupi ng Materials, technology, and/or resources , includi ng the use of i nstructional aides , parents, or other adults in the roo m Progress mo nitoring o f student learni ng Instruction Plan 1. Orally state to the class that we will go one step further with graphing points and see how we can graph equations by plotting points. 2. I will write an equation on the board and do a T-chart for it using various x values near the origin. I will plot those points and draw the line that goes through them. I will point out to students that the y intercept is the b value in the equation and they can get the x intercept by letting y=0 and solving for x. I will repeat this two more Instruction Plan Rationale 1. Students need to know upfront what they are learning now is connected to what they learned before. 2. Since students don’t have any experience in this field, I think it is best for me to model the process so that they can see it and learn it. 3. Students need to practice what they learned and this gives them an opportunity for that. 4. Students are pre-grouped prior to the lesson in a random fashion. 5. This gives me an opportunity to see Rationale how well students are able to carry out the process and to ask individual Partial questions that will inform me of rationale misconceptions they may have. times. 3. Now that students have seen me model the process, I will let them do one on their own. 4. Students can get help if they need it by asking one of their three group vague members. and 5. Go around the class and ask each cursory student individual questions as to their progress and what steps are involved in completing their task. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–9 BMC #00371268 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 10. Given the difficulties you anticipate students could have with the content, what additional steps would you take to foster access and comprehension for all students? I can integrate a quick review of the four arithmetic operations on positive and negative numbers while doing the problems on the board. This means accentuating things like: a negative times a negative is a positive, rules for adding and subtracting integers, etc. This will be done as I do the actual computations. How would you share the results of student academic learning with students and families? I would share the results by writing comments on their homework as to what they did well and what they need to work on. 11. Step 4: Lesson Adaptations for the Two Focus Students Directions: Consider what you have learned about the two focus students in Step 2 and the implications for instruction that you identified for each of them. For the two students, determine what adaptations you will make to this lesson that you have planned for the whole class. Describe those adaptations for each of the two focus students. If you determine that no adaptations are needed for a part of the plan for instruction, indicate that decision. Complete the table below. In each box include: • your decisions about lesson adaptations, and • a rationale for those decisions. Student 1: An English learner 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. No change, student is capable of meeting learning goals. inadequate response 2. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson. I will have a significant one-on-one conversation with him (in Spanish if necessary) as to what he understood. I will also examine his work in detail to look for evidence of learning. He is very open and honest about his difficulties in terms of understanding what to do. He also receives personalized attention from me. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 268–10 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 3. BMC #00371268 Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. Writing the academic goals for the lesson on the board and perhaps illustrating relevant; them visually. accurate In the vent he doesn’t understand then orally, he can also have a written reference. Visuals are great for ELL and this is likely to help him see what is being asked of him. Instructional strategies As I model the process, I will list the steps side by side. This will illustrate all the steps involved and how they actually look like in the context of a problem. He has the skills to perform the tasks. This way, they are broken down so he can take one thing at a time and eventually complete the entire task. Student activities As students do the last problem, they must also list the steps on the side as I have modeled. This will get him in a routine that he can follow to do subsequent problems. Student grouping Have him in a group that has another Spanish speaker. He can learn from this student and that student can help him to understand what is going on. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room Does not meet No change Step 4 Not necessary for him to access and learn the material. requirements 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Progress monitoring of student learning No change Sufficient has been included Does not meet Step 4 requirements 9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family No change Original ways are sufficient Does not meet Step 4 requirements Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–11 BMC #00371268 CalTPA–Designing Instruction Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. No change, student is capable of meeting learning goals. 2. inadequate response Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson A quick interview with her to recap what I told the class. She is a capable young lady. Her greater problem is paying attention. If she paid attention, it is highly probable that she knows what to do. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. After I both state and write the learning goals, I will individually ask students to repeat what the learning goals are. She will be one of these students that I call on. This will let me immediately if she knows what is expected of her. Instructional strategies Have a student come to the board and present their solution to the last lim ited problem. appropriateness; wea kly connected By doing this problem, she builds confidence in her ability and gets her started on her work. Student Activities A student will present his or her solution to the last problem. She will be involved in the material and more disposed to learning it. Student grouping Have her in a group that does not include her friends. Her friends tend to get her off task. She should be in a group with more focused students so that she learns from their example. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room Allow her to use a calculator She is able to do computations, but does not like to do them. Letting her use a calculator might make her more inclined to complete the work. The important thing is that she will meet the learning objectives. Progress monitoring of student learning No change Sufficient has been included. Does not meet Step 4 requirements 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. 268–12 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family Individually share my assessment of her learning after class. This will let her know that I care about her progress so that she takes her work seriously. Step 5: Reflection on Connecting Instructional Planning to Student Characteristics Directions: Read your responses to the prompts in Steps 1-4. Think about what you have learned in Task 2 about the characteristics of the two focus students, your instructional planning for the whole class, and your adaptations for the focus students. Respond to the prompts below: 1. What information that you collected for the whole class and/or for the two focus students most influenced your planning for this lesson? Why? The information that most influenced my planning for the English learner was cursory, his prior work in algebra in Mexico. That let me know I needed to focus more not on comprehensible input for the student rather than fundamentals. The specific information that most influenced my planning for my hiding out student was that same behavior. It led me to develop ways to include students in the lesson. How will you use what you have learned in regard to connecting instructional planning to student characteristics in the future? In your response, you may address collecting student information and/or planning instruction based on student information. I will use what I learned through this task to adapt my instruction and lesson vague planning to specific student needs. By this I mean that it is vital for me to and collect student information that may affect the way they learn. I should then general in turn adapt my lessons to plan by instruction. 2. Sidebars contain assessor’s comments. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 268–13 CalTPA—ROE BENCHMARK CASE Designing Instruction BMC #00371268 Grade: 10 Content Area: Mathematics Evidence Subject Matter: Algebra A/B Interpretations of Evidence GS : relevant and accurate goals GS (Establishing Goals/Standards): K-12 SACS for Math listed. Unit of study described. Academic learning goals listed. LAS (Learning About Students): Information regarding S(s) collected in all areas by informal methods. No formal language assessment. PFI (Planning for Instruction): Lesson focuses on one academic learning goal. Unit goal restates K-12 SACS. Brief instructional plan. Some rationale provided. MA (Making Adaptations): Some adaptations and strategies listed for both FSs (modeling the process, listing steps for solutions). PS (Using Subject-specific Pedagogical Skills): Some strategies reflect knowledge of effective ELD practices (visuals, pairing students). LAS: cursory information from limited sources PFI: limited and weak connections among student information, academic content, and instructional plan MA: minimal adaptations and rationale provided P S: cursory and inconsistent pedagogy R (Reflecting): R: Some analysis regarding need to learn about cursory reflection on improving practice students and adapt lessons accordingly. Summary Statement – There is partial evidence provided by the teacher candidate for the TPE domains assessed in this task. Score: 2 Copyright © 2001, 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #86151205 Step 1: Academic Content Selection and Learning about Students Directions: An important step in planning instruction is to learn about your students. Select one class, content area, and the state-adopted academic content standards for students to work with at this time. Respond to the prompts below about the class, unit of study, and how you learn about the students. A. Academic Content Selection Grade Level: Content area: Subject matter: 2 Science Life Science 1. List the state-adopted academic content standards for students that you will cover at this time. No CDE Biological Science using the math skill of grouping and the science skill of standards observation. 2. Describe the unit of study that addresses those standards. The unit of study is entitled “Living Things” The unifying concept of this unit is that living things interact with each other and their environment. All living things have structures that work together to help it survive in its environment. 3. What is (are) the academic learning goal(s) for this unit of study? The Learning Objective of the lesson is “given materials made from plants, students will be able to identify our need for plants and be able to compose a short essay to include ideas from the book, “The Giving Tree.” Class Information Age range of students: 7-8 Total number of students: 20 Number of male students: 11 Number of female students: 9 Lesson conten t area unclear Goal i s unclear and inappropriate Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–1 BMC #86151205 B. Student Characteristics Linguistic Background CalTPA–Designing Instruction 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Primary language, language primarily spoken at home 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Parent survey, refer to CELDT tests, refer to student files, personal interviews with student and family, basic knowledge test to assess student language development. 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Genera l Knowing the linguistic background enables the teacher to assess the stage of and development and inform instruction according to student needs. vague Academic Language Abilities, Content Knowledge, and Skills 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Student academic strengths and weaknesses 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Refer to last year’s teacher, refer to student file to obtain academic history, basic skills test 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Strengthen areas of weakness, know student capabilities, and to inform instruction (gearing up, gearing down) Physical, Social and Emotional Development 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? If the student is below average, average or above average 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Observations, P.E. skills testing, providing different social settings for students to interact in 205–2 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #86151205 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Lacks Provide activities for student growth in each area detail Cultural and Health Considerations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Sensitivity to customs and beliefs, know allergies, handicaps, diseases 2. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Parent survey, interviewing student, questionnaire 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? Including culture within curriculum, knowing student limitations Interests and Aspirations 1. What information that may influence instruction, do you want to learn about your students? Hobbies, goals, dreams, extracurricular activities 3. How will you learn about your students? Describe the methods you will use and why you have chosen to use those particular methods. Interview, note interests within assignments, drawings, writings, choices in activities 3. How will you use this information in planning academic instruction in your selected content area? vague Make learning fun provide opportunity for learning to take place outside ambiguous of the classroom, setting goals marking achievements. Step 2: Learning about Two Focus Students Directions: Select two focus students from the class you identified in Step 1. Select one student who is an English learner and one student who presents a different instructional challenge. Use some of the Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–3 BMC #86151205 CalTPA–Designing Instruction methods you described in Step 1 to learn about these two students and consider your selected content areas and subject matter when describing what you learned about the two focus students. Student 1: An English learner Gender: Female Age: 8 1. Why did you select this student? This student is an ELL student who is very good at math and at P.E. but is delayed socially and struggles with reading and writing. 2. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? Spanish is the language primarily spoken at home. Her father speaks three languages, her mother only speaks Spanish. English is only spoken at school. 3. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? Good math skills, problem solving skills are average, Academ ic language abilities not addressed reading and writing skills are average, reading and writing skills are very low. 4. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? This student has had little to no exposure to the sciences. 5. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? Physically coordinated to perform any physical tasks such as experiments but socially, this student will not interact with other students so group work is almost out of the question for this student at this time. 6. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? I don’t know what you are asking for in this section, the question is vague. The term cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area does not make sense. I don’t know how to answer. Response missing 7. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? No special considerations in relation to health issues. No details provid ed 205–4 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #86151205 8. What did you learn about this student’s interest and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? This student wants to work with animals when she gets older. The sciences within this unit should be interesting to this student. 9. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) Response missing Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge. Gender: Male Age: 8 1. Why did you select this student? This student is extremely intelligent but is a constant behavior problem caused by a lack of discipline. 2. How is the instructional challenge that he or she presents different from that of the other student? 3. What did you learn about this student’s linguistic background? English is the only language spoken at home and school. 4. What did you learn about this student’s academic language abilities in relation to this academic content area? Good in every subject, good problem solving skills, good reading and writing skills. 5. What did you learn about this student’s content knowledge and skills in this subject matter? This student has had a lot of exposure to the sciences due to his interests and reading. 6. What did you learn about this student’s physical, social and emotional development relevant to this academic content area? This student is physically coordinated but does not work well with others. Group work is almost impossible for this student because this student refuses to work with others. 7. What did you learn about this student’s cultural background including family and home relevant to this academic content area? Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–5 BMC #86151205 CalTPA–Designing Instruction 8. What did you learn about this student’s special considerations, including health issues relevant to this academic content area? No special considerations in relation to health issues. No details provid ed 9. What did you learn about this student’s interest and aspirations relevant to this academic content area? This student has a deep interest in science and how things work. This student is often reading science related books for SSR. 10. Describe other information relevant to this academic content area that you learned about the student, (e.g., attendance, extracurricular activities, etc.) Step 3: Planning for Academic Instruction for the Whole Class Directions: Consider your academic content selection in Step 1 and what would you want the students to learn? As you begin to think about a lesson that falls within the selected unit of study, respond to the prompts below about your plan for academic instruction for the whole class. 1. At what point in the sequence of the unit is this lesson? Put an X next to one: ___at the beginning of the unit of study _x_between the beginning and the end of the unit of study ___at the end of the unit of study List the state-adopted academic content standard(s) for students you will address in the lesson. Life Science, Biological Science using the math skill of grouping and the science skill of observation. What is (are) your academic learning goal(s)? What specifically do you expect students to know or be able to do as a result of the lesson? The Learning Objective of the lesson is “given materials made from plants, students will be able to identify our need for plants and be able to compose a short essay to include ideas from the book, “The Giving Tree.” How is (are) your academic learning goal(s) related to the state-adopted academic content standards for students? This lesson incorporates skills from Math, Science and Language Arts. The skills include grouping, identifying, observation, reading, evaluation and writing. State-adopted academ ic con tent standards are missing 2. Lesson focus not clear 3. 4. 205–6 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 5. BMC #86151205 How will the content of the lesson build on what the students already know and are able to do? Students have been studying this unit of “Living Things,” from which they will have some prior knowledge. The assignment at the end of the lesson to include “The giving Tree,” builds on their knowledge of the lesson preceding the book. Not coherent 6. How will the content of the lesson connect to the content of preceding and subsequent lessons? 7. What difficulties do you anticipate students could have with the lesson content and why? Initially, the lesson has the students identify the things that we use plants and trees make. Some of the answers include paper, clothing, rubber, housing, etc. Not specific I think it will be difficult for students to really critically think about the or deta iled; ambiguous subject. They will have some background knowledge to build on, but as the lesson goes on, they will be given the tools to answer that question again. They will then have the knowledge to complete the task. What evidence will you collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson that will show the extent to which the students have learned what you intended? The students will be composing a short essay based on the book “The Developmen tally Giving Tree” by Shel Silverstien. Students will apply their knew inappropriate; irrelevant knowledge as well as their knowledge from the story to compose their connection to essay. Think about how you will sequence your instruction of the academic content to be covered in this lesson. Describe your plan for instruction in the order in which it will be implemented. Address each of the following and provide a rationale for each of your decisions: Co mmunica ting the academic lea rning goal(s) to the students Instructional strategies Student a ctivities Student g roupi ng Materials, technology, and/or resources , including the use of instructional aides , parents, or other adults in the roo m • Progress mo nitoring o f student learni ng • • • • • 8. science con ten t 9. Instruction Plan • Students will know what is expected of them before, during and after the lesson. They will be given a motivational factor which encourages their success in completing this assignment. unclear Rationale • When students are given a motivational factor, they know that they can achieve the task at hand. • Direct Instruction is the model of choice because there is a lot of information for the children to Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–7 BMC #86151205 • CalTPA–Designing Instruction The model of teaching will be Direct Instructional Plan Rationale Instruction. Students will be presented • learn. Direct Instruction was the best the information, they will be lead way to teach this content. through Structured practice. Guided • Different grouping patters helps Practice and independent Practice. students to learn better as opposed to Students will group items originated by constant independent work. Grouping plants into categories. Then, they will facilities learning. list all of the items they can think of • There are three steps in which students that derive from plants. The final will experience the content they are assessment will be the composition of a learning. Within the Direct Instruction short essay based on the book. Model, there are three opportunities to Students will participate in group work practice the mastery of the content. as they group items in their proper • It is important to have ample support categories. They will be asked to for the lesson. It is also important to independently list items that come from use different visuals to meet different plants. They will then participated in learning needs and to capture attention. group reading of “The Giving Tree” • Monitoring takes place from the very followed by independent writing. beginning to make sure that the There will be four adults in the knowledge base is solid and to ensure classroom. Materials used will be success for the students. Planning unrelated tangible items for the lesson, the • to overhead projector, books. • informa tion Monitoring takes place for the very given about beginning to make sure that the the focus students knowledge base is solid and to ensure success for the students. Instructional plan not connected to stated goal – vague and in complete • • vague • Lacks detail • Roles not defin ed • Not clear 10. Given the difficulties you anticipate students could have with the content, what additional steps would you take to foster access and comprehension for all students? Lesson planning should always be flexible enough to make room for any changes at any time. response not sp ecific to question How would you share the results of student academic learning with students and families? The students’ final project will be displayed on the bulletin board for the month. Students will include their writing in their Portfolios. vague and not clearly described 11. 205–8 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction BMC #86151205 Step 4: Lesson Adaptations for the Two Focus Students Directions: Consider what you have learned about the two focus students in Step 2 and the implications for instruction that you identified for each of them. For the two students, determine what adaptations you will make to this lesson that you have planned for the whole class. Describe those adaptations for each of the two focus students. If you determine that no adaptations are needed for a part of the plan for instruction, indicate that decision. Complete the table below. In each box include: • your decisions about lesson adaptations, and • a rationale for those decisions. Student 1: An English learner 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. This student will have difficulty in expressing thoughts in writing for the final assignment. One adaptation would be for the student to first draw what she would like to write, verbalize it to an adult and then refer to her drawings to help the writing process Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson I will collect the student’s sample drawing of the story and whatever writing she has done. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. The learning goals will be explained to the students at the beginning of the lesson. As I monitor comprehension, I will encourage this student to do the best she can. Instructional strategies One of the adults in the room will sit near this student and work one on one with her when needed. Student Activities One of the adults in the room will sit near this student and work one on one with her when needed. Student grouping This student needs to learn how to work with others. I will expect this student to participate in group work. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. No details provided 7. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room Roles of There will be four adults in the classroom. Materials used will be tangible adults no t items for the lesson the overhead projector, books defin ed Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–9 BMC #86151205 8. CalTPA–Designing Instruction Progress monitoring of student learning Monitoring is done within each step of the lesson plan as described above. Not expla ined 9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or the family The students final project will be displayed on the bulletin board for the month. Students will include their writing in their Portfolio. Vague and not clearly described Student 2: A student who presents a different instructional challenge 1. Academic learning goal(s) or your expectations of what the student should know or be able to do as a result of this lesson. This student will not have any difficulty completing the tasks. This student will need hands on work to keep him on task. One adaptation would be to ask this student to help me by passing out and collecting materials and helping place the objects in their proper categories as the class groups. This would ensure this students involvement in the lesson and keep him from getting board. Evidence of student learning you will collect during the lesson and/or at the end of the lesson. All three of the assignments will be collected from this student. This student will have no problems in its completion. Communicating the academic learning goal(s) and/or expectations to the student. This student will not need any adaptations. Instructional strategies This student will not need any adaptations. Student Activities This student will not need any adaptations. Student grouping This student needs to learn how to work with others. participate in group work. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. I will expect this student to 7. Materials, technology, and/or resources, including the use of instructional aides, parents, or other adults in the room There will be four adults in the classroom. Materials used will be tangible items for the lesson, the overhead project, books Not specific 205–10 Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. CalTPA–Designing Instruction 8. BMC #86151205 Progress monitoring of student learning Monitoring is done within each step of the lesson plans as described above. Not explain ed 9. Sharing results of the student learning with the student and/or family. The students final project will be displayed on the bulletin board for the month. Students will include their writing in their Portfolios. Vague and not clearly d escrib ed Step 5: Reflection on Connecting Instructional Planning to Student Characteristics Directions: Read your responses to the prompts in Steps 1-4. Think about what you have learned in Task 2 about the characteristics of the two focus students, your instructional planning for the whole class, and your adaptations for the focus students. Respond to the prompts below: 1. What information that you collected for the whole class and/or for the two focus students most influenced your planning for this lesson? Why? Cursory; no Although the standards are the same for every student, there are many depth of adaptations that need to be made to accommodate the learning needs of analysis your student. How will you use what you have learned in regard to connecting instructional planning to student characteristics in the future? In your response, you may address collecting student information and/or planning instruction based on student information. Cursory; Collecting student information is vital in planning instruction. Knowing no depth of student needs, interests, abilities, etc. is essential to writing a lesson that analysis all students will be able to succeed. 2. Copyright © 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing. All Rights Reserved. 205–11 CalTPA—ROE BENCHMARK CASE Designing Instruction BMC #86151205 Grade: 2 Content Area: Science Evidence Subject Matter: Life Science Interpretations of Evidence GS : goals are ambiguous and K-12 SACS are missing LAS: cursory information about students GS (Establishing Goals/Standards): K-12 SACS are not listed for science. Goal and content area brief. LAS (Learning About Students): Information for some areas missing. Lists some formal and informal methods (parent survey, student records, CELDT tests, interviews with student and family). General information on how S(s) information will be used (strengthen areas of weakness, know student capabilities, make learning fun). PFI (Planning for Instruction): Instructional plan lacks detail. Plans include: district instruction, structured practice, guided practice, independent practice, group work and independent work), composing a short essay). Some rationale is general. MA (Making Adaptations): Few adaptations listed for FS1 (drawing before writing one-on-one by one of the adults in the room). Few adaptations listed for FS2 (assisting teacher with passing out papers). Little rationale provided. PS (Using Subject-specific Pedagogical Skills): Briefly describes using model of “Direct Instruction” (presentation of information, structured practice, guided practice, and independent practice). Lacks descriptions of ELD strategies PFI: vague links between student information and planning plan is not coherent and contains minimal detail some parts of plan are developmentally inappropriate (essay composition) MA: limited adaptations minimal rationale P S: description of PS is cursory and not coherent R (Reflecting): R: Three sentences stating importance of minimal reflection that lacks specific details collecting information to plan instruction. and analysis necessary to improve practice Summary Statement – There is little or no evidence provided by the teacher candidate for the TPE domains assessed in this task. Score: 1 Copyright © 2001, 2003 by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing ...
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