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Unformatted text preview: Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education A Poeltion Statement O‘Fthe National Association for Sport and Physical Education Developed bythe Middle and Secondary School Physical Education Council (MASSF‘EC) Acknowledgments Bill Monti, Kentfield, CA, principal writer MASSPEC Cabinet Kris Fritz, Midwest District, Chair Matt Mixer, Southwest District Chris Morrill, Eastern District Joyce Ellis. Central District Dale Kephart, Northwest District Tom Jacoby, Eastern District De Raynes, NASPE Liaison Judy Young, Executive Director, NASPE NASPE would like to extend its appreciation to the many professionals who reviewed this document and contributed to its development. Copyright © 2004 National Association for Sport and Physical Education, an association of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance. All rights reserved. Reproduction of this work in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means. including photocopying or storage in any information retrieval system is expressly forbidden without the written permission of the publisher. Requests for permission to make copies of any part of the work should be mailed to: NASPE Publications, 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1599. Address orders to: AAHPERD Publications, PO. Box 385. Oxon Hill, MD 20750—0385. call 18003210789, or order on line at www.aahperd.org/naspe. Order Stock No. 304-10272 Printed in the United States of America. ISBN 0-88314—90670 iSBN 08831490670 90000> 9 780883149065 Appropriate Practices For High School Physical Education Preface The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) has provided leadership to the field of physical education for over 100 years. A central aspect of this leadership is the development of standards and guidelines for quality physical education programs. These standard-setting efforts have culminated in recent years in publishing documents, with appropriate revisions over time, which establish standards in four areas essential to providing quality physical education. The current documents are as follows: What students “should know and be able to do" relative to physical activity: 0 Moving into the Future: National Physical Education Standards: A Guide to Content and Assessment. 1995. 0 Moving into the Future: National Physical Education Standards: A Guide to Content and Assessmen {2mj ed.). 2003. Program support factors which ensure students the “opportunity to learn” in physical education: 9 Opportunity to Learn Standards for Elementary Physical EducatiOn. 2000. 9 Program Improvement and Self-Study Guide for Middle School Physical Education. 1998. 0 Program improvement and SelfeStudy Guide for High School Physical Education. 1998. Appropriate instructional practices for elementary, middle, and high school programs: 0 Appropriate Practices for Elementary School Physical Education. 2000. 0 Appropriate Practices for Middle School Physical Education. 2001. 6 Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education. 2004. Qualifications for a teacher of physical education: 6 National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers. 2003. Taken together, these documents describe standards for quality physi— cal education at elementary. middle, and high school levels, respectively. This document, Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education, addresses key aspects of instructional strategy and practice that are essential to delivery of quality physical education to adolescents and young adults. Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education The Goal is Quality Physical Education Programs The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) and the Middle and Secondary School Physical Education Council (MASSPEC), believe that high quality physical education should be available to all students. "Will our children be ready to meet the demands of the 21"t century?" “What do children need to know and be able to do in order to pursue a lifetime of health-enhancing and satisfying physical activity?" These questions are answered in a document entitled. Moving Into the Future, National Standards for Physical Education, (2nd ed. 2003). This document provides a guide to content and assessment for physical education programs in kindergarten through twelfth grade. The vision is that every student will become physically educated by achieving the following standards. A physically educated person: 1. Demonstrates competency in motor skills and movement patterns needed to perform a variety of physical activities 2. Demonstrates understanding of movement concepts, principles, strategies, and tactics as they apply to the learning and performance of physical activities 3. Participates regularly in physical activity 4. Achieves and maintains a health enhancing level of physical fitness 5. Exhibits responsible personal and social behavior that respects self and others in physical activity settings 6. Values physical activity for health. enjoyment. challenge. self-expression and/or social interaction For our students to achieve in each of these areas, the general public, parents. teachers. administrators. and legislators must understand and support these important standards. Providing an "opportunity to learn" and qualified teachers implementing appropriate instructional practices can assure a positive educational experience and achievement of the standards. The stakes are high. The health and welfare of our children are in the balance. Quality physical education programs for all of our children are the cornerstone of a healthy, physically active lifestyle as adults. This document will address appropriate instructional practices for high school physical education. Appropriate Practices for High School Phyoical Education Premises of Physical Education Programs for Adolescents The ultimate purpose of physical education is to help adolescents gain the skills and knowledge to be physically active for a lifetime. A developmentally and instructionally appropriate physical education program promotes a physically active lifestyle. It accommodates a variety of individual differences such as cultural identity, previous movement experiences, fitness and skill levels, and intellectual, physical, and social-emotional maturity. Appropriate instruction in physical education incorporates best practices derived from both research and experience for teaching adolescents in ways that facilitate success for all students. Providing a safe and inclusive learning environment allows the adolescent to experience positive, challenging, and enjoyable physical activity while learning skills and developing an understanding of the benefits and importance of physical activity. In conjunction with these activity experiences, students develop a positive selfeimage and social skills that will provide personal competence in work and leisure situations. Teachers design physical activity experiences appropriate for the developmental level of adolescents. Teachers plan content that will allow students to experience progres- sive levels of achievement toward standards. Not only will students achieve competence in a variety of movement activities, but they will also understand the conceptual basis and principles that contribute to effective movement and fitness. By the end of the required curriculum, students should fully recognize and understand the significance of physical activity in the maintenance of a healthy lifestyle, and should have developed the skills, knowledge, interest, and desire to maintain meaningful activity for a lifetime. Teachers will design activity experiences that develop personal and social behaviors consistent with responsible behavior in sport and in our society. This includes conflict resolution, the importance of rules, ethical behavior, and positive social interaction required in physical activity settings. Teachers will also make connection among and between history, culture and games, sports, and dance to expand student under— standing and appreciation. Physical educators perform a critical role in communicating knowledge about physical activity that will aid the adolescent in adjusting to life's demands. Aopropria‘ce Practices For High School ’hysical Education Physical education is a unique and important component of the total school program. Physical education provides the physical component of a total education facilitating optimal physical development and health maintenance. Physical education focuses on physical development while also integrating the emotional. social, and intellectual components that develop the whole child. The program prepares the adolescent to safely meet the physical demands of daily life, to use activity for health benefits for a lifetime, and to enjoy physical activity during leisure time. The school community focuses on balanced learning opportunities addressing the following three major goals of the high school as set forth in Turning Points: Preparing American Youth for the 213i Century, a report of the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development (New York: Teachers College Press, 2000, p.12). 1. Academic achievement 2. Developmental responsiveness 3. Social equitability. As an integral part of a total education, physical educators join with other subject area teachers to provide students with interdisci— plinary instruction through alignment with current research on how students learn. Physical activity and physical education are not the same. Physical education is a curricular component within the structure of the school that focuses on students learning about physical activity and gaining motor skills and healtherelated fitness. Physical education focuses on the whole child, including cognitive and affective as well as psychomotor aspects. Physical educators know and teach for the achieves ment of natiOnal standards in physical education. The instructional program helps develop the fundamental skills needed to be physically active. Physical activity is the content and product of the physical educa tion program supporting many important related content areas. The goal of physical education is participation in healtheenhancing physical activity for a lifetime. Physical education programs should provide a significant amount of time for all students to actively participate. Physical activity —_—————— 6 Appmpriate Practices for High School Physical Education education promotes physical activity outside the class setting as an outcome of choosing a healthy, satisfying lifestyle. Physical education, intra murals, club and athletic programe are different. Physical education is an instructional, curriculum component designed to educate all students from the physically and/or mentally gifted to the physically and/or mentally challenged. The skills and knowledge gained in an effective instructional program prepare the adolescent to participate in a variety of extracurricular activities, such as intramural, club and athletic programs. An intramural program is an opportunity for students to be physicalEy active and apply physical education learning outside of the curricular program. Intramural programs provide opportunities to all students to implement the skill and knowledge gained in physical education and to participate in a competitive situation without being subject to selection (“cutting”) processes. Club activities consist of out of class programs that specialize in a single, individual or team activity such as swimming, ice skating, ballet, skiing, tennis, and soccer. For most of these programs the ultimate goal is to qualify for an elite competition, college scholarship or a vocation. Despite the fact that these club experiences have value, they are time consuming and serve a selected cadre of students. The experiences provided in the club sessions are focused and many emphasize competitive performance in a very specialized activity. Athletics is another outlet for skill gained in physical education that is focused on serving more highly skilled and motivated students on a selective basis. Because of the competitive emphasis, performance is the primary goal. Although extremely demanding physically, these activities are not substitutes for physical education. All of these opportunities are important and valuable in the total education of students and should be encouraged for students seeking the physical and mental demands of high level competition. Appropriate Practices for High 5chool Physical Education lntrod uction High school students are experiencing a phase in their development in which they are attempting to make sense out of who they are and how they will live their lives as adults. The transition from adolescence to adulthood is a key issue during the high school years. Physical education can play an important role in that transition. Positive selfeconcept devei- opment is an outgrowth of a number of positive experiences encountered through physical activity. Social development results from interactions between peers as they learn to work cooperatively in small. medium and large groups. Physical education contributes to students’ academic and intellectual growth as it provides knowledge and understanding about their bodies and how they function with exercise and without exercise. Students learn how to achieve physical fitness and the importance of maintaining an active lifestyle for a lifetime. They are introduced to and exposed to a wide variety of activities, competitive and noncompetitive, that bring them enjoyment and support those academic experiences that are critical to understanding the activity. This document addresses how a physical education teacher can most effectively assist in this transition and delineate characteristics of quality physical education instruction that meet the needs of each student regardless of their developmental characteristics and needs. Intended Audience This document is written for physical education teachers, school administrators, school policy makers, and parents. It is intended to provide specific guidelines that identify "appropriate" instructional practices that support maximal opportunities for student achievement and those that are “inappropriate”, counterproductive or even harmful to the physical, mental. social and emotional development of adolescent learners. The appropriate and contrasting inappropriate practices included in this document are not intended to be exhaustive but rather exemplary of significant factors that should be considered in evaluating or improving programs. These guidelines may be helpful to parents in understanding common characteristics of instruction associated with delivery of quality physical education. ——_.——.—u——-——— 5 Appropriate Practices for High ficrool Physical Education TEACHING FOR SUCCESS IN HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM Content Decisions _’ Teachers follow the School Board’s approved curriculum for each year of required instruction. Teacher-based curriculum decisions are built on NASPE ‘5 Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education and the relevant state framework derived from these standards. Teachers include motor development and motor learning in their delivery of physical activity content. They also include other aspects of exercise science at the relevant level, so that students perform identified movement forms and apply mechanical principles in a full range of physical activities. 1.- 4 S>'_ _ _ Teachers base instructional units and learning experiences primarily on the season. facilities, and teacher preferences and not on a systematic, approved curriculum. Teachers teach all students the same skills year after year and little or no movement analysis, personal and social understanding, and strategies of competition are included. Supervised game play with little organized lesson development domi- nates the units presented. Variety of Content Teachers provide a variety of activities ranging from non-competitive to highly competitive activities and across a variety of categories such as team and individual sports. gymnastics, aquatics, dance, outdoor activities, etc. Curriculum is designed to address the diverse needs of all students and is presented in a format that will promote success, challenge. and enjoyment for all students. Teachers facilitate structured student choices. Teachers provide context and cultural perspectives for learning experiences and movement forms included in the curriculum. —_,_——.._——-— Appropriate Practices for High Sohooi Physical Education 9 10 Teachers also promote opportunities and resources in the community where students can participate in activities learned in class. Activities focus primarily on competition with other students and are limited to a few team sports. Teachers teach what they coach or their favorite activities without concern for student choices, interests, or abilities. Teachers teach the same units/sports every year, year after year, and plan the same skill drills and learning activities no matter what the grade level. Some individuals, because of gender. skill level, or cultural characteristics, are excluded from or have limited access to class activi- ties. Teachers do not foster student choice or provide for structured activity selections. Activities included in class may not be available in the community or at home. Learning Activities When deciding on activities to be included in the curriculum, the teacher will also consider student interests, age, physical characteristics, knowledge, and abilities. Teachers will modify content for students of varied skill levels. Teachers use various forms of pre-assessment to find out student skill levels and to help plan. Lessons are designed to develop and challenge a wide range of student abilities, beginning with simple skills and progressing to complex skills. The teacher helps students understand and apply the knowledge, skills, strategies, and tactics that are common across many sports. Selected activities provide opportunities to demonstrate the parallel between the “game setting” and the similarity found in “real life". When appropriate, teachers include activities such as rock climbing, canoeing, skiing, hiking, camping, dancing, yoga, etc. and sports like golf, tennis, swimming, soccer, and basketball which are considered “lifetime sports” and can be engaged in throughout life in both noncompetitive and competitive contexts. Teachers include consumer education to help students judge the quality of equipment, fitness gyms, dance studios, diet plans, and numerous other programs encountered in the community. Teachers determine activities by season, personal preference, or available equipment. Pre-assessment does not occur or is not used to plan content of lessons. The activities presented are too difficult, too easy, or without a developmental sequence. Games are the basis of the curriculum. Appropriate Practices for High School Physioai Education Teachers do not teach students how to analyze skill or strategy associated with activities. Teachers do not point out the commonalities between activities and skills required to be successful across activities. Practical Knowledge Teachers present the unique knowledges of the disciplines of exercise science and physical education and stress co-curricular, inter-disciplinary applications in their instruction. Teachers emphasize acquiring the knowledge to support critical thinking and problem solving. This knowl- edge includes the scientific bases found in movement skills, the applica tion of exercise physiology and biomechanics, learning about movement patterns and execution of every day activities. Teachers provide informa- tion about safety as a key aspect of all instruction. Teachers emphasize only sport or physical activity participation. The program does not facilitate development of student knowledge of the scientific bases of physical activity. The class activities are not consis— tently grounded in the facilitation of safe participation outside of class. Teachers fail to provide meaningful insights or experiences through problem solving or team situations. Teachers fail to link skills, knowledges. and disciplines learned in physical education to life. Fitness Instruction Teachers facilitate development and maintenance of physical fitness. They provide instruction about the techniques of training for fitness, setting personal goals, adjusting programs for age change, injury, or disability. Teachers use assessment and are knowledgeable of standard- ized fitness testing procedure. Teachers help students interpret and utilize assessment data for achieving desired fitness levels. Teachers convey to students the fact that physical fitness is notjust a high school experience but provides a lifetime of benefit that can be maintained by well-planned and well-executed physical activity participation. Physical fitness activity consists of mass exercises following a designated leader or standard routine. Teachers provide no explanations Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education ii 12 of “how” or "why" for student understanding. Students do not learn how to set goals or to individualize personal fitness programs for themselves. Preparation for fitness testing is not a planned part of the curriculum. Interpretation of test results is not addressed and use of normereference standards puts a focus on comparison to others rather than health-related goals and benefits. Teachers do not present information and skills that will enable students to create their own ongoing fitness plans. LEARNING ENVIRONMENT Classroom Setting A positive classroom environment is established and reinforced constantly by both teacher and students. Teachers model appropriate behavior in class, in the school, and at school activities. Teachers take responsibility for preparation and maintenance of a safe instructional space. Teachers take responsibility for providing safe equipment and immediately remove equipment that becomes unsafe. Teachers make facilities and equipment available to maximize practice and learning based on individual needs and class size. Teachers ensure that offecampus settings conform to high safety standards, i.e., bowling alley, driving range, golf course. recreation center, municipal swimming pool, etc. ,9;— The teacher is not attentive to establishing and maintaining a positive instructional environment. Facilities are not well kept. need repair and lack attractiveness. Equipment is limited and not in good repair. Teachers do not provide adequate equipment to enable all students as much practice as they need. Bulletin boards are not used or are only rarely changed. The teacher is viewed as the organizer or supervisor rather than a facilitator of learning. Climate 3’— Teachers establish a positive learning environment to support student learning. Teachers use verbal and nonverbal behaviors to promote a positive climate and to encourage student effort. Teachers provide a Appropriate Practlcco for High School Physical Education positive climate that acknowledges success of all students who are moving toward personal goals and who are making individual improvements in skills. understanding, and fitness. Teachers seek to promote enjoyment in physical activity. class participation, and interest in motor skills and personal fitness. Teachers acknowledge effort, treat students with respect, and recognize individual accomplishments. Teachers maintain high expectations for student achievement, challenging all students to perform to their full potentiai. Teachers continuously reinforce a positive environment among students where they can learn to recognize peer effort, demonstrate mutual respect for everyone, and acknowledge individual accomplish- ments. Fair and consistent classroom management practices encourage student responsibility for positive personal and group behavior. Teachers monitor both the physical and psychological atmosphere to ensure safety and security, physically and social-emotionally. Personal com- munication between student and teacher about lesson content or personal experiences is available through journal writings and direct dialogue on a regular basis. —! Teachers have low expectations of students and set minimal goals for student achievement. Compliance with classroom policies is a major expectation instead of learning. The class atmosphere is stressful clue to pressure to perform skills with inadequate preparation in a situation where all attention is on the performer. Teachers use exercise to punish students (i.e., run a mile) rather than for their educational value. The climate is unfriendly, punitive. or apathetic. Teachers use only corrective or negative interactions concerning skill and/or behavior. Students do not feel support from the teacher. Students are sometimes ridiculed after making mistakes. The rules are unclear and may vary from day to day. The students may have very limited personai communication with the teacher. Teachers do not establish high expectations relative to respect, support and positive peer interactions. Social Interaction Teachers reinforce positive social experiences through challenging activities and competition that require student cooperation and shared planning to reach a desirable outcome. Teachers engage students in learning the importance of rules and require compliance with them to make a game safe, fair, and fun. Teachers make connections from games Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education 15 to the rules found in a society. Teachers monitor qualities of leadership. communication. responsibility, trust, and cooperation among students and employ strategies to enhance student growth. Experiences taught contribe ute to building each individual's confidence. Teachers direct activities with no consideration of student input. Rules for activities are not explained or are not given any context. Teach- ers randomly group students or let students self—select without direction. Teachers assume students will automatically pick up valuable social attributes by being in a physical activity setting. Inclusion and Diversity Teacher—selected groups that are diverse in characteristics of race, gender, skills and behavior are created and maintained for extended periods of time to facilitate cooperation, respect. responsibility, cohesive- ness, etc. Teachers plan group “trust” activities to promote inter—depen- dence, cooperation, problem solving, communication, and interaction that contribute to the development of respect among group members. Teachers inform students about cultural context of activities even when local diversity may be limited. Teachers view diversity and individual differ ences as a positive educational opportunity. Teachers are aware of the minorities in their student body and take the initiative to become educated about religious and ethnic customs. The teacher allows activity teams or groups to be formed by students — teams are chosen by captains. These teams tend to exciude individuals or groups of students from participating, competing, or being successful. Forming groups only by gender, social or ethnic characteristics, or using other ways that alienate student groups are used. Teachers fail to individu- alize instruction, requiring all students to do the same activity with no accommodations made for skill and fitness differences or student interest. Teachers form random groups among their students that do not foster maximum learning. Teachers are "not knowledgeable about or sensitive to ethnic or religions rules/limitations/customs and move forward with activities that automatically exclude students and/or alienate them. __—__—_.—————- i4 Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education Competition Teachers select activities for student participation that range from non—competitive to more competitive in an attempt to satisfy the interests of all students. Teachers guide the experiences of students as they develop skills, strategies, and social dispositions to enable them to be successful in participation. Teachers help students learn “what to do" at different levels of competition and set up decision-making situations so students can learn how to make correct "how," “why, where,” and "when" reactions to competitive demands. Teachers structure competitive experiences that parallel real world experiences in an atmosphere where mistakes can be made with controlled, constructive consequences. Appropriate activity selections supported by adaptations and modifications produce successful experiences that become challenging and fun for participants. Teachers focus on production of full-scale competition and limit skill instruction. Unmodified games are used extensively (full field or court and fullesized teams). Activities focus primarily on competition against other students. Aggressive students are allowed to dominate activity. Teachers allow some individuals. because of gender, skill level, or cultural characteristics, to be excluded from or limited in access to participation and learning. 5: n Teaching/Learning Styles Teachers use a variety of teaching styles including command, peer. guided discovery, problem solving and practice, and plan learning experi- ences accordingly. The needs of visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile learners are carefully considered in order to provide optimal learning opportunities. Choice of teaching style is determined by instructional goals, the needs and attributes of the students and the inherent risks in an activity. All learners benefit from the rich variety of strategies that evolve from the various teaching styles. Teachers monitor learning styles of students and design lessons to support the full range of learning styles. Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education 15 Teachers chagize student learning collectively and use a teaching style with which they are familiar and comfortable. Teachers primarily use a direct teaching style regardless of the learning and student response. Teachers make no effort to determine the degree to which students understand and can apply information presented in class and do not request feedback from students. Teachers are unwilling to involve stu- dents in instruction. The physical education teacher tightly controls the curriculum, with students never having input regarding rules, kinds of activities, or equipment used for practice. Learning Time Teachers plan adequate instructional time for all students to acquire the concept or skill being taught. Teachers plan for maximum practice trials and monitor progress so that time spent on particular learning activities is appropriate. Meaningful practice is progressive in scope and sequence to facilitate learning. Conceptual instruction transfers from one activity to another reinforcing the similarities found in sport. Teachers limit groups to low numbers (e.g., three team members) so activity produces maximum contact with equipment. learning, and participation. Teachers do not utilize effective time management strategies. They do not allow time to evaluate/monitor student skills development. They do not plan for an adequate number of practice repetitions to reinforce learning. Teachers move to game play and competition before all students have had adequate time to practice/learn the skills, strategies, and tactics of the sport or activity. Maximizing Participation Teachers plan, monitor, and evaluate class activity and reorganize as necessary to maximize participation, increase the number of individual trials, and increase skill practice. They provide sufficient equipment for effective practice. Teachers design modified games providing for full and meaningful participation of all students. All students, regardless of ability. are challenged. —__.—.__—_———-— WE Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education _{ Teachers often or regularly organize mass activities involving ran- domly selected groups of students participating in teams. Limited equip- ment is provided reducing the opportunities for skill practice and learn, ing. Teachers allow some students to dominate skill positions while other students are limited participants in the activities. Warm—up Activities Teachers design warmeup activities that are instructionally sound. They use warm-up activities to reinforce/practice skills from previous lessons as well as to lead into the day‘s lesson. Warm—up activities are safe, appropriate exercises that accommodate different fitness levels, and produces perspiration as a sign of internal body heat. Stretching occurs after an appropriate general warm-up activity. Teachers consider warm-up in relation to the total lesson and ensure that students understand why and how to warm~up in relation to the total lesson and ensure that students understand why and how to warm-up appropriately. Teachers monitor execution of warm—ups and stretching, preparation for activity. to be sure all students benefit and that the activity achieves its purpose. —! Teachers have students warm-up on their own. possibly without supervision. A single warmeup routine is used regardless of the lesson, ignores individual fitness levels, and/or is potentially unsafe. Mass exercise sessions are conducted without instructional focus. Stretching occurs without general warm-up. Outside of Class Assignment Teachers design outside of class assignments that extend class activities and provide practice or reinforcement of skills and knowledge. Teachers extend experiences from ineclass activity lessons to community and family activities. Such experiences extend learning and connect instruction to its purpose. Teachers use various means to monitor stu- dents’ out of class physical activity. Teachers are aware of community physical activity resources and link outeofeclass assignments to class activities to increase authentic practice opportunities. Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education 17 Teachers do not plan or assign outside learning activities. There is no effort to reinforce or extend physical education instruction. Teachers do not demonstrate to students how they can engage in physical activity outside of class. Use of Technology Teachers use technology in many phases of their programs. For example, teachers use technology by making website addresses available for students to do research and/or homework assignments, videotaping students as a form of skillerelated feedback, monitoring heart rates electronically, recording activity patterns with pedometers, recording fitness data using a current software program, or providing impedance readings on body fat. Teachers seek insservice training to increase their skills, learn about new software and hardware, and incorporate state-of- the—art technology appropriately into the curriculum to enhance instruc— tion and student learning. Teachers avoid the use of technology due to their level of knowledge/ skills or the belief that it is unnecessary and/or inappropriate. Teachers over—emphasize use of technology to the point that time and attention is taken away from instruction and skill practice time. Teachers do not teach students how to chart the data collected by use of technology or how to use data to evaluate progress and set goals. Feedback to Students The teacher consistently supports student effort and successes of all students. Daily lessons are debriefed by the teacher. who provides the link between student experience and curriculum goals. Teachers provide positive, descriptive feedback for all participants including direct descrip- tive feedback on student work, assignments. and skill progress. They use a ,_,—__————— 15 Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education variety of assessment methods so as to develop a clear picture of student progress and achievement. The assessments include clearly defined criteria. which are articulated to students as part of instruction prior to evaluation. Grading systems reflect the degree to which students achieve the educational instructional goals set for them. Teachers provide regular reports of student progress to students and parents using continue ous. formative evaluations. Teachers facilitate peer feedback through use of rating scales and task sheets. Report cards and progress reports provide regular, systematic information about student performance. Immediate updates on student progress are provided to parents through use of phone calls, personal notes. or Email messages. Students receive only general feedback or feedback that is obvious. Students receive little descriptive feedback or information concerning performance. Teachers seldom talk to students about performance or behavior at the conclusion of the day's activity. Teacher comments may be directed to the class as a whole. rather then to individuals. Feedback contains little information about the quality of the student response. how to improve. or what has been accomplished. Teachers do not inform students about the levels of achievement necessary for the various grades or how to achieve them. Reports to parents and students are infrequent. unclear. and/or perfunctory. Teachers assign grades based on a single skill. fitness test, or written test given at the completion of instruction. Teachers use arbitrary measures such as effort, dress. or participation that do not reflect the instructional objectives. Responsible Assessment Teachers design assessment in relation to the goals and objectives of the instructional program and planned outcomes for student achieve- ment. Assessment is on-going, not just at quarter report time. Students are aware of the criteria, reiated to accomplishment of a skill. knowledge. or disposition. and the rubric that will be used to assess performance. Teachers assess student performance that demonstrates their ability to apply. analyze. synthesize. and evaluate various concepts related to motor skills. fitness, and physical activity participation. Fitness testing is a source of feedback used to improve personal healthwrelated fitness and to progress toward personal goals. Teachers conduct skill and fitness assessments discreetly and with a conscious effort to avoid putting a Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education 19 student "in the spotlight." Responsible assessment is a way to communie cate program successes to the community. Students are n§assessed regularly or are assessed based on isolated measurements. Students are assessed using inconsistent, arbitrary measures that do not reflect the instructional objectives or learning opportunities. Often assessment is limited to attendance, dressing for activity, compliance with class rules, and subjective observation. Teachers use rubrics ad criteria but do not share them with students so the students are not clear on what they need to be able to do. Fitness testing is used to determine grades. Teachers do not respect student confidentiality when conducting assessments; students perform skills for a grade as the rest of the class sits nearby and watches. Variety of Assessments / . Teachers systematically teach and assess all domains (cognitive, affective and physical). Teachers use a variety of assessment methods, such as portfolios, journals, multimedia presentations, internet research, charts and graphs, to view student performance in many ways and to get a broad picture of student learning. Teachers plan assessments that reflect student learning about physical activity as well as its perfor- mance. Teachers evaluate student participation in “outside of class" activities. Formative assessment is done frequently and regularly as part of learning. Numerous indicators are considered in summative assessments of student achievement. X _ Teachers use assessment infrequently and summative assessment is based on a single performance or incident. Teachers do not use a variety of measures because creation of these measures and evaluating the performance results would take too much time. _—_—_—___ 20 Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education Teacher as a Role Model The physical education teacher is a role model of a physically educated person. Teachers participate in some type of physical activity on a regular basis. thus conveying to students the importance of lifetime physical fitness. Students are aware of the enjoyment and/or satisfaction that activity brings to the teacher’s life. When various factors preclude vigorous participation, some type of alternative activity is done. Teachers have and share enthusiasm for an active healthy lifestyle. The physical education teacher does not lead a healthy lifestyle and does not model participation in physical activity outside of the school setting. Professional Growth Teachers are actively involved professionals who seek interaction with others in their field through professional organizations. The physical education teacher continually seeks new information to stay current. They attend professional meetings, receive journals, participate in list services. and use the web to increase skill and knowledge. They collaborate with colleagues to provide input for policy development and they position themselves as physical activity experts within their schools. Teachers continue their formal education and seek administrator support for release time to work toward recertification or Continuing Education Unit (CEU) opportunities. Teachers “put in" time, do not belong to professional organizations, and do not seek professional growth. Teachers depend only on their original formal education, read little, and do not take advantage of Continuing Education Unit (recertification) opportunities. They do not attend in—services, workshops, or conferences/conventions. Teachers complain about lack of regard instead of building bridges of communication. Teachers are not available after school to help students —,—_.—.—— Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education 2i 22 work on skills. they limit their involvement in after-school activities to what is required by their administration. they meet minimal contractual requirements. Advocacy Teachers regularly inform parents, administrators, and the public about the goals and activities of the physical education program through newsletters, parent’s night demonstrations, displays. parent conferences and other means. The physical education program makes numerous contributions to the education of adolescents and to the total school curriculum. Teachers seek opportunities to inform others of the inter— disciplinary contributions of physical education. The physical education teacher is knowledgeable about current guidelines for physical education programming and physical activity for students. They promote adherence to appropriate levels of physical activity, safety, and healthy choices. The physical education program is not a visible part of the school community. The teacher does little to communicate with people in decision-making roles concerning the objectives and goals of physical education and its importance to the development of the whole child. The teacher is not an activist in promoting adequate program support for physical education. Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education References Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development's Task. (1989). Turning points: Preparing American youth for the 2] st century. New York: Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development. Mohnsen, 13., Ed. (2003). Concepts and principles of physical education: What every student needs to know. Reston, VA: National Association for Sport and Physical Education publications. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1998). Appropriate practices for high school physical education. Reston, VA: author. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (2001). Appropriate practices for middle school physical education. Reston, VA: author. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1995). Moving into the future: National physical education standards: A guide to content and assessment. Reston, VA: author. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1998). Program improvement and selfestua‘y guide for high school. Reston, VA: author. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. (1998). Program improvement and self-study guide for middle school. Reston. VA: author. Appropriate Practices tor High School Physical Educatior Published by the National AssociatiOn for Sport and Physical Education to promote quality physical education programs: Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education, A Guide to Content and Assessment (1995). Stock No. 304-10083 CDnCepts and Principles of Physical Education: What Every Student Needs to Know(2003). Stock No. 304-10261 Beyond Activities: Elementary Volume (2003), Stock No. 304-10265 Beyond Activities: Secondary Volume (2003). Stock No. 304—10268 National Physical Education Standards in Action (2 003). 304-10267 Physical Activity for Children: A Statement of Guidelines {2003). Stock No. 30410276 National Standards for Beginning Physical Education Teachers (2003), Stock No. 304-102 73 Active Start: A Statement of Physical Activity Guidelines for Children Birth to Five Years (2002), Stock No. 304-10254 Appropriate Practice Documents Appropriate Practice in Movement Programs for Young Children, (2000). Stock No. 304710232 Appropriate Practices for Elementary School Physical Education (2000). Stock No. 304-10230 Appropriate Practices for Middle School Physical Education (2001). Stock No. 304-10248 Appropriate Practices for High School Physical Education (2003). Stock No. 304-10272 Opportunity to Learn Documents Opportunity to Learn Standards for Elementary Physical Education (2000). Stock No. 304—10242 Physical Education Program improvement and Self-Study Guides (1998) for Middle School‘ Stock No. 304-10173, for High School. Stock No. 304-10174 Assessment Series Assessment in Outdoor Adventure Physical Education (2003), Stock No. 304-10218 Assessing Student Outcomes in Sport Education (2003). Stock No. 304-10219 Video Tools for Teaching Motor Skill Assessment (2002), Stock No. 304-10217 Assessing Heart Rate in Physical Education (2002). Stock No. 304-10214 Authentic Assessment of Physical Activity for High School Students (2002). Stock No. 304-10216 Portfolio Assessment for K-12 Physical Education (200m Stock No. 304-10213 Elementary Heart Health: Lessons and Assessment (2001). Stock No. 304-10215 Standards-Based Assessment of Student Learning: A Comprehensive Approach [1999). Stock No. 304-10206 Assessment in Games Teaching {1999), Stock No. 304-10212 Assessing Motor Skills in Elementary Physical Education (1999), Stock No. 304—10207 Assessing and Improving Fitness in Elementary Physical Education (1999). Stock No. 304-10208 Creating Ruhrics for Physical Education (1999), Stock No. 304-10209 Assessing Student Responsibility and Teamwork (1999). Stock No. 304-10210 Preservice Professional Portfolio System (1999). Stock No. 304-10211 Order online at Worm or call 1-800-321-0789 Shipping mid handling :ldtlilimlkll National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) an association of the American Alliance for Health. Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance 1900 Association Drive. Reston. VA 20191 I [email protected] - (703) 476-3410 ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/19/2009 for the course ED 21086 taught by Professor Jeanmitchell during the Spring '09 term at California State University , Monterey Bay.

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