c28420-lecture6-2009 - Course 28420: Lecture Course 28420:...

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ourse 28420: Lecture 6 Course 28420: Lecture 6 Rafiqul Gani Topics to be covered: Extractive Distillation (homogeneous azeotropic distillation), Salt Distillation and Pressure-Swing Distillation. Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation (own udy: section11 6) study: section11.6) Reactive & Supercritical Distillation will be covered in lecture 9 with additional notes 28420: Separation Process Principles - Lecture 6 (2009) 1
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quid mole fraction quid mole fraction x 1 liquid mole fraction x 1 liquid mole fraction Azeotropic systems 28420: Separation Process Principles - Lecture 6 (2009) 2
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i t f i By adding a solvent (MSA or trainer) to the binary Mixture forming one min-boiling azeotrope entrainer) to the binary azeotrope, a ternary system is obtained. Ternary diagrams can represent the compositions of the 3-components at a fixed temperature, pressure, time, stage, etc. Distillation curves are curves of liquid (or vapor) compositions of increasing (or decreasing) temperature Distillation boundary in a batch (or continuous) distillation operation. ernary diagrams can be Mixture not forming an azeotrope Mixture forming two min- boiling azeotropes Ternary diagrams can be used to configure extractive & azeotropic distillations 28420: Separation Process Principles - Lecture 6 (2009) 3 Figure 11.3 Distillation curves for liquid-phase compositions of ternary systems at 1 atm
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Within a module, the feed and its two products must be in a straight line because, Fz = Vy + Lxi i i for i=A, B, C Therefore, it is convenient to trace the mass balance operating lines on a ternary diagram. This provides a isualization of the visualization of the design as well as the operation. t t igure 11 4 istillation sequences for ternary zeotropic mixtures Direct sequence Indirect sequence To separate a ternary zeotropic mixture into 3 pure products by istillation 2 columns 28420: Separation Process Principles - Lecture 6 (2009) 4 Figure 11.4 Distillation sequences for ternary zeotropic mixtures distillation, 2 columns are needed
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Residue Curve Maps: How to obtain them and use them? Calculated partial residue curve Residue-curve map Figure 11.5 Residue curves for the normal propanol-isopropanol-benzene system at 1 atm dx i /dt = x i –y i i=1,3 Model for batch distillation x i = 1 ; y i = 1 i=1,3 = , P, x =1,3 From an initial charge (x i at t=0), vapor (y i ) at equilibrium is continuously moved. This increases the composition 5 y i K i (T, P, x , y ) x i i 1,3 removed. This increases the composition of x j (heavy component) at time = t in the batch-pot, increasing its temperature. Note; y i is at equilibrium with x i
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Calculation of residue curves (example 11.1) Given: t=0; x (0); K (T) 1. Calc bubble point T and rresponding corresponding y (t) at known x (t) [Eq. 11.7 11.8] & 11.8] 2. Set t=t+ t.
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c28420-lecture6-2009 - Course 28420: Lecture Course 28420:...

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