lecture1-28420 - 9/1/2009 Lecture 1: Introduction to...

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9/1/2009 1 Lecture 1: Introduction to Separation Process Principles Text-book: chapters 1-2 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 1 Lecture 1 divided into 3 parts: I Introduction to separation process principles II Concept of phase diagram II Concept of phase diagrams III Concept of equilibrium stages and computation of phase diagrams 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 2
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9/1/2009 2 Separation Processes Principles: The main issues A When is separation necessary? A. When is separation necessary? B. What are the mechansims of separation? C. Which mechanisms and how many need to employed to achieve a desired separation? D. How to select/design of separation tasks? E. How to verify if the desired separation can be achieved? 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 3 When is separation necessary? Crude separation processe Reactor N 2 H 2 NH 3 N 2 , Argon processes Oil products Crude Oil Separating different oil products from Argon Methane H 2 , Methane Recovery & purification of chemicals 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 4 crude oil (products) Two Examples
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9/1/2009 3 Mechanisms of Separation 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 5 a) Phase Creation; b) Agent-based separation; c) Barrier; d) Solid agent; e) Force field or Gradient Example: Separation of a binary azeotropic mixture Separation technique Class Phases involved Absorption Solvent-based External material based Gas-Liquid Gas Ga How many mechanisms and which mechanisms? External material-based Gas-Gas Adsorption Pervaporation Vapour-Liquid Filtration Solid-Liquid Crystallisation Property difference Distillation Distillation plus decanter Vapour-Liquid plus Liquid-Liquid Extractive distillation Azeotropic distillation Vapour-Liquid-Liquid Liquid-Liquid extraction Liquid-Liquid Super-critical extraction Fluid-Vapour-Liquid 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 6 Analyze mixture to be separated (collect data or predict behaviour) Identify relation between mechanism and system property (separation principles) Generate and test alternatives (select, design, verify)
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9/1/2009 4 Analyze mixture: Phase diagrams & Pressure dependence How many mechanisms and which mechanisms? 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 7 Principles of separation: Separation versus property Separation occurs at binary level : For pure component property k, let B ij = p ik / p jk If B ij > , separation technique S k is feasible If B ij for pure component boiling points >> 1, separation of chemical i from chemical j by distillation, flash are feasible; 28420: Separation Process Principles (Lecture 1) - 2009 8 if B ij for melting points >> 1, crystallization is feasible; if B ij for Van der Waals volume >> 1, membrane based separation is feasible, . ..
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9/1/2009 5 For each binary pair of components Check for binary azeotropes (VLE), eutectic points (SLE) for a range of pressure Principles of separation: Separation versus property (SLE) for a range of pressures Check for (mutual) miscibility & phase splits (LLE) Identify feasibility of agent-based separations (solvents, membranes, adsorbents, ….)
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This note was uploaded on 11/20/2009 for the course CHME DTU-abroad taught by Professor Rafiqulgani during the Fall '09 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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lecture1-28420 - 9/1/2009 Lecture 1: Introduction to...

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