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Lecture 9 - Energy Conservation

Lecture 9 - Energy Conservation - Out of Gas Out of Gas The...

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Out of Gas
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Out of Gas The end of the age of oil David Goodstein
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Energy Myths $3 a gallon is too much to pay Oil companies produce oil. We must conserve energy. When we run out of oil, the marketplace will take over There’s enough fossil fuel in the ground to last for hundreds of years. Nuclear energy is dangerous. The greenhouse effect and global warming are bad.
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Thermal Radiation
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30% reflected 70% absorbed
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30% reflected 70% absorbed Earthrise on the Moon
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30% reflected 70% absorbed T = 255 K = -18 o C = 0 o F
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Earth’s Climate The tilted axis
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Earth’s Climate The tilted axis The El Niño Cycle
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Earth’s Climate The tilted axis The El Niño Cycle The Thermohaline Flow
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Earth’s Climate The tilted axis The El Niño Cycle The Thermohaline Flow The Greenhouse Effect
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The Greenhouse Effect From the Sun: 343 W/m 2 Water vapor, methane, Carbon dioxide, etc. 88% Greenhouse T = 287K= 14 o C = 57 o F Feedback effects Limiting cases (Preindustrial)
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Sources of Useful Energy Before 1800: Light from the Sun Coal Oil seeps Swamp gas
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Nineteenth Century Coal Whale Oil E. L. Drake, 1859, Titusville, PA. Illumination, Lubrication Fuel We can no longer live on light from the Sun We can no longer live on light from the Sun
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M. King Hubbert
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Hubbert’s analysis Q = All the oil that’s been discovered Q 0 = All the oil that ever existed At first, discovery grows exponentially dQ/dt = aQ
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But exponential growth slows down when Q is no longer small compared to Q 0 : dQ/dt = aQ ( Q 0 – Q) The Logistic Equation
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dQ/dt versus Q
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