Proterozoic - Alles Introductory Biology: Illustrated...

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Alles Introductory Biology: Illustrated Lecture Presentations Instructor David L. Alles Western Washington University ----------------------- Part Three: The Integration of Biological Knowledge Major Events in The Proterozoic Eon and Adaptive Radiations & Mass Extinctions -----------------------
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Major Events in The Proterozoic Eon 2500 to 542 m.y.a. The evolution of complex eukaryotes The evolution of sexual reproduction The evolution of multicellular life forms
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Cambrian Explosion First multicellular Life Origin of sexual reproduction 800 1100 2000 2500 542 Red Bed Formations Banded Iron Formations Proterozoic Eon Origin of complex Eukaryotes "Organic walled fossils demonstrably made by eukaryotes occur in rocks as old as 1.8 to 1.6 billion years . .."—Falkowski, et al, 2004
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Molecular Prokaryotic Eukaryotic Multicellular Present Big Bang Time (in billions of years) Levels of Stable Phenomena Complexity Quantum, Sub-Atomic, Atomic 0 3 5 7 9.7 11.7 12.7 13.7 The Eukaryotic Level (origin ~ 2000 million years ago) 1) Scale in size—1 x 10 -5 to 1 x 10 -4 meter or ten to a hundred times larger than the prokaryotic 2) Self Organization—endosymbiotic mutualism of primitive eukaryotes and prokaryotic bacteria to form true eukaryotic cells 3) Emergent Properties & Processes—endosymbiotic mutualism; origin of Kingdom Protista ; evolution of sexual reproduction (origin ~ 1100 million years ago)
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Paramecia, Domain Eukarya , Kingdom Protista (Photograph by Dennis Kunkel courtesy of Microbeworld)
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First Anaerobic Heterotrophic Prokaryotes Autotrophs Eubacteria (hard cell wall) Archaebacteria (soft cell wall) Aerobic Prokaryotic Autotrophs (chloroplasts) Anaerobic Eukaryotic Ancestor Single cell Eukaryotic Heterotrophs (such as Paramecia) Single cell Eukaryotic Autotrophs (such as Euglena) Multicellular Eukaryotic Heterotrophs (Animals) (Fungi) Multicellular Eukaryotic Autotrophs (Plants) symbiotic clones endosymbiosis endosymbiosis symbiotic clones symbiotic clones 4000 m.y.a. 2000 m.y.a. 1000 m.y.a. RNA World (Cyanobacteria) Aerobic Prokaryotic Heterotrophs (mitochondia) Endosymbiosis & Eukaryotic Cells
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Dr. Lynn Margulis, Distinguished Professor at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, in the 1960's was the first to propose the endosymbiotic theory of eukaryote evolution. Although now a widely accepted theory, both she and her theory were ridiculed by mainstream biologists for a number of years. Thanks to her persistence, biology can now offer a plausible explanation for the evolution of eukaryotes.
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Mitochondria, the descendents of free living aerobic prokaryotes, contain their own DNA and reproduce independent of their host cell.
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Chloroplasts, the descendents of free living cyanobacteria, also contain their own DNA and reproduce independent of their host cell.
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Paramecia, a single cell heterotrophic protist, contains mitochondria.
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Euglena, a single cell photoautotrophic protist, contains both mitochondria and chloroplasts.
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First Anaerobic Prokaryotes Autotrophs Eubacteria (hard cell wall) Archaebacteria (soft cell wall) Aerobic Prokaryotic Autotrophs (chloroplasts) Aerobic Prokaryotic Heterotrophs (mitochondria)
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2009 for the course BIOLOGY bio131 taught by Professor Dr.matern during the Winter '07 term at Diablo Valley College.

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Proterozoic - Alles Introductory Biology: Illustrated...

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