Anatomy_Review

Anatomy_Review - Anatomy Review Urinary System Graphics are...

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Unformatted text preview: Anatomy Review: Urinary System Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com ( http://www.adam.com/ ) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co ( http://www.aw.com/bc ) Page 1. Introduction • The urinary system rids the body of waste materials and controls the volume and composition of body fluids. • Highly specialized cells in the kidneys are essential to these processes. Page 2. Goals • To review the anatomy of the urinary system, particularly the kidney • To examine the vascular and tubular portions of the nephron • To compare and contrast the specialized cells of the tubular epithelium • To review the unique structure of the juxtaglomerular apparatus Page 3. The Urinary System • The urinary system is composed of paired kidneys and ureters, the urinary bladder, and the urethra. • Urine is produced in the kidneys, and then drains through the ureters to the urinary bladder, where the urine is stored. Urine is eliminated from the body through the urethra. • Label this diagram: Interactive Physiology Page 4. External Structure of the Kidneys • Each bean-shaped kidney is embedded in a fatty adipose capsule. • The kidneys are retroperitoneal, lying against the dorsal body wall in the upper abdomen. • An adrenal gland, which is part of the endocrine system, lies on top of each kidney. • Several structures enter or exit the concave surface of the kidney at the renal hilus, including the ureter and the renal vein, which drains into the inferior vena cava. • Label this diagram: Page 5. Blood Supply of the Kidneys • When the renal vein is removed and the kidney is shown in frontal section, you can see the deeper renal artery and its connection to the abdominal aorta. • Branching from the renal artery are the segmental and lobar arteries. • Together, these vessels provide the kidneys with a rich blood supply under high pressure that allows them to continuously filter and cleanse the blood. • Label this diagram: Interactive Physiology 2 Page 6. Internal Structure of the Kidney • Internally, the human kidney is composed of three distinct regions: 1. Renal Cortex • The outermost layer is called the renal cortex. It contains about one million nephrons, the filtering units that form urine. • Types of Nephrons: • Cortical nephrons - lie completely within the cortex • Juxtamedullary nephrons - lie in both the cortex and medulla 2. Renal Medulla • The middle layer is called the renal medulla, in which you can see the triangular renal pyramids. These pyramids look striated because of parallel bundles of ducts carrying urine from the nephrons. • The areas between pyramids are the renal columns. They are extensions of the cortex that provide a route for the • The areas between pyramids are the renal columns....
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Anatomy_Review - Anatomy Review Urinary System Graphics are...

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