Biochemistry_jd_2 - Biochemistry, Secretion, and Transport...

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Biochemistry, Secretion, and Transport of Hormones Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Biochemistry, Secretion, and Transport of Hormones Hormones can be classified according to their chemical structure. The functionality of a hormone is dependent upon its chemical structure. The control of secretion of a hormone is dependent upon its function. Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals To recognize the chemical classes and solubility properties of hormones. To observe how a single member of each class of hormones it synthesized. To know that secretion of hormones depends on release, synthesis or both. To learn that neural, hormonal, or humoral stimuli control secretion of hormones. What You Need to Know The structures of amino acids, proteins, and steroids. The difference between water-soluble and lipid-soluble. The concept of negative feedback systems and how they work. The synthesis of complex molecules proceeds along pathways, each step requiring a specific enzyme. The anatomy and neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system. Page 3. Chemical Structure of Hormones Peptide Hormones Composed of chains of amino acids that range from 3-20 amino acids in length. Most hormones are peptides. Most peptides are water-soluble. Amine Hormones Contain the amino acid tyrosine. The catecholamines are epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine and they are water-soluble. Thyroid hormone is created as iodine is added to tyrosine and is lipid-soluble. Steroid Hormones. Derived from cholesterol. They are lipid-soluble. ** Now is a good time to go to the quiz question #1. Click the quiz button on the left side of the screen Click on the scrolling page list at the top of the screen and complete question 1. When you are finished you can click the return from link button on the left side of the screen to return to the topic.
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Page 4. Peptide Hormones: Insulin *Be sure to view all the steps in the animation detailing the synthesis of insulin. Prohormones are formed by ribosomes of the rough ER. They are packaged in vesicles and sent to the Golgi apparatus for processing. The Golgi apparatus releases secretory vesicles filled with the prohormone. Activation to the active form of the hormone often takes place inside the secretory vesicles. The insulin is stored until needed in the secretory vesicles. Once stimulated it can be released in the blood stream very quickly by exocytosis. Peptides are water-soluble and travel in the blood as dissolved particles.
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Biochemistry_jd_2 - Biochemistry, Secretion, and Transport...

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