Hypothalamic_Pituitary_Axis - Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis...

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Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Page 1. Introduction The hypothalamus and pituitary gland form a complex interface between the nervous system and the endocrine system. The brain can influence the activity of Neurosecretory cells and hormones can influence the release of other hormones. Page 2. Goals/ What You Need to Know Goals To study the hypothalamic-pituitary axis anatomy. To review the hypophyseal portal system. To identify sources of endocrine and neural control of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. To review thyroid hormone. What You Need to Know The difference between a neurotransmitter and a hormone. The difference between somatic and autonomic nervous systems. The role of the hypothalamus in the control of the autonomic nervous system. Also known as the hypophysis. Page 3. Pituitary Anatomy Also known as the hypophysis. Divided into the glandular anterior lobe and the neuronal posterior lobe. Anterior lobe is also known as the adenohypophysis. Posterior lobe is also known as the neurohypophysis. The pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus via a stalk of tissue called the infundibulum. Anterior Pituitary The six major anterior pituitary hormones are peptides. The Six Major Anterior pituitary hormones are: 1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) 2. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, a gonadotropin) 3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH, a gonadotropin) 4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, or corticotropin) 5. Growth Hormone (GH) 6. Prolactin (PRL) Targets and Functions of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones 1. TSH – target thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone (TH). 2. FSH – targets follicles in the ovaries of females and stimulates growth of follicle and production of estrogen. In males it targets the testes and stimulates sperm cell production. 3. LH – targets follicle, triggers ovulation and increases secretion of progesterone. In males it stimulates testosterone production. 4. ACTH – targets the adrenal cortex and causes the secretion of glucocorticoids. 5. GH - targets most bodily tissues and stimulates metabolism and growth of those tissues.
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6. PRL - targets the breasts in females. Stimulates breast development and lactation. Of the six anterior pituitary hormones, four directly stimulate other endocrine glands and are known as tropic hormones . For each target gland/tissue here fill in the correct anterior pituitary hormone. Also make sure to highlight the four tropic hormones. The anterior pituitary gland is connected to the hypothalamus via the hypophyseal portal system. Capillaries in the ventral hypothalamus pick up hormones released by hypothalamic
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2009 for the course BIO 1B taught by Professor Carlson,mischel,power during the Summer '07 term at Berkeley.

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Hypothalamic_Pituitary_Axis - Hypothalamic-Pituitary Axis...

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