23. December 3rd - The French Revolution

23. December 3rd - The French Revolution - THE FRENCH...

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THE FRENCH REVOLUTION I. The Four Revolutions 1. Revolution of the Aristocracy 2. Revolt of the Bourgeoisie 3. People’s Revolution 4. Peasant’s Revolution II. The Growth of Radicalism/Fall of the Monarchy THINGS TO THINK ABOUT: - Attitudes towards the “other” (women, Jews, Calvinists, Africans) - What is the response to the “new” - The role of religion, or the lack thereof in the French Revolution. - Where is political authority vested - What are people’s “rights” [Two dueling camps] - What are people’s “responsibilities” - What is the dynamic between tradition and change? I. Introduction to the Four Revolutions [Review] The Three Estates - Social hierarchy that com es from the m e dieval period. o 1st Estate: Clergy Rich in land, rich in money o 2 nd Estate: Aristocracy Nobles of the Sword, Nobles of the Robe. Rich in land, and money. Controlled 85% of the country’s wealth. Made money from trade, manufactured goods, wine, etc. Under 10% of the French population are in the 1 st two estates. - 1 st two estates were exempt from paying taxes. The money that the 1 st two estates are making are not going back into the country to support the country as a whole. o 3 rd Carries 90% of the tax burden. Bourgeoisie: the cream of the 3 rd Estate: Merchants, lawyers, and doctors. They are the most active in promoting the interests of the 3 rd Estate. The Estates o A gathering, meeting bringing people together to ask a set of questions that the people of the region were to vote on, in order to make a suggestion to the government o It is not a body that creates a law, they are instead a consultative group. o Essentially they are used seldom used means of assembly. o Estates General: Gathering on the national level to discuss national issues of importance. [Seldom used in an absolute monarchy] Parlements o The law making body of early-modern France. o Judicial arm of the French government. Courts. o Most important parlement is in Paris. - It is important to note, that this governm ent fails to m ake the changes and a nswer the questions that were facing the nation. The failure of the 3 Estates.
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1. Revolution of the Aristocracy, 1786-1788 - Essentially a conservative reaction. Louis XVI      (reign: 1774-1791; “king of French,” 1791-92; executed 1793) o Historians now believe that he was suffering from depression. - 1786, France is on the edge of bankruptcy. WHY? Because France had been  fighting wars for so long. - Louis XVI starts borrowing money from other nations, from the church, from  the aristocracy to keep the French treasury afloat.  - Result: Inflation. -
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23. December 3rd - The French Revolution - THE FRENCH...

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