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Unformatted text preview: T HE ENL IGHTENMENT I. The Critic: Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755) I I. The Political Architect: Jean Jacques Rousseau, 1712-1778 I I I. The Radical Denis Diderot, 1713-1784 IV. The Pessimist: Francois Ma r ie Arouet, or Voltaire, 1694-1778 *This class: Turn to the 18 th century* Thinking about the 18 th Century and Themes in this Class:- Contradictions and Ambiguities- From Obligations to Rights- Expanding Empires- Expanding Markets- The Growth of Leisure How Enlightenment Ideas Developed:- The French are looking at the English and despite the Civil War that has been recently going on, they are inspired how England bounces back from War and continues to thrive.- The French philosophes adopt many ideas from the English- The French love Issac Newton, as is shown by the number of French paintings. French loved to paint portraits with works of science as pieces in the background. Newtons work was often one of these pieces. French Philosophes = English Ideas Spread Message = Parliament Emmanuel Kant = Science / Issac Newton Hobbes and Locke Hobbes and Locke- Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) o Background: born in what he considered the booming era of England: Through the reigns of Elizabeth and Charles, etc. England is going through many political changes and challenges, which influence his ideas. o state of nature: war of all against all o Social Contract o Leviathan (1640) How a government should be run- John Locke (1632-1704) o state of nature: independence The pursuit of independence defines a civilization. o Rights of life, liberty, and property Property: Include works and material goods o Two Treatises of Government (1689)- Immanuel Kant o The Enlightenments version of G. Pico della Mirandola o Believed in reason and rationale....
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