18. Experimenting with Monarchy - Charles I and the English Civil War

18. Experimenting with Monarchy - Charles I and the English Civil War

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EXPERIMENTING WITH MONARCHY: CHARLES I and the ENGLISH CIVIL WAR I. James I and Divine Right Rule II. Charles I (reign: 1625-1649) III. Personal Rule IV. The English Civil War V. The Republican Experiment Theme: Church and State, the relationship between religion and politics. This lecture focuses on England. I. James I and Divine Right Rule James VI of Scotland, I of England (reign: 1603-1625) o Comes to power after the death of Elizabeth I. o Great rejoicing when James I comes to power: Elizabeth I had ruled for so long that the English had forgotten what England was like without Elizabeth. Elizabeth’s death marks what seems to be a new beginning for England, a breath of fresh air. o James I, not your normal monarch: paranoid about assassination, philosophical intellectual, and did not speak proper English (lowland Scots). Instead of playing the courtiers social games, James I retreats to a small group of favorites led by… George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham o This small group of tight supporters was known as THE FAVORITES o English aristocrats despise this group. o James I justification for the Favorites: Divine Right Rule - Divine Right Rule : a King is the chosen, divine ruler of a people. God chose that person, to govern people. And as a king, the king only has to answer to God , and not to the people. o Significance: Challenges the traditional authority of a monarch and their relationship with the people. Divine Right and the Puritans o Puritans [a growing population]: descendants of English Calvinists – Calvinist beliefs. Puritan name comes from the belief that they are from a “pure” church. o Conflict: Divine Right Rule assumes that a king’s command is one with God’s command; Puritanism believes in a personal relationship with God, and that relationship with God and relationship with King are important, but not one and the same. o Puritans did not believe in having to go through any medium, even a King to achieve a relationship with God. Puritans believed in direct, personal relationship with God. - To a dd to complications, there were correct speculations that Catholics, specifically Jesuits were trying to infiltrate the English throne. Gunpowder Plot , 1605 o The beginning of Modern Terrorism: o Guy Fawkes hired to blow up Parliam ent. o Led by a group of Catholics that would take James I off the throne, and restore Catholicism to England. o Significance: Exposes the real thre at of Catholicism. II. Charles I (reign 1625-1649)
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Charles I o Antithesis of his father James I: personable, charismatic, outgoing, funloving. o Completely absorbed the concept of Divine Right Rule. o Charles I’s Problems: inherits the problem of the Favorites. Charles I has a good relationship with Villiers, but the rest of England does not, and hates him.
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18. Experimenting with Monarchy - Charles I and the English Civil War

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