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17. October 31 - Science and Religion - The New Science on Trial (2)

17. October 31 - Science and Religion - The New Science on Trial (2)

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SCIENCE and RELIGION: The NEW SCIENCE on TRIAL I. Giordano Bruno’s Long Shadow II. Galileo Galilei III. Seeing is Believing? The Problem with Instrumentation IV. Galileo Galilei and the Grand Duchess Christina V. Galileo on Trial VI. After the Trial Ideas of the time: God made the universe through speech (as recorded in Genesis). Also a somewhat contradicting idea that God made the universe through number, weight, and measure (through a different passage in the bible). I. Giordano Bruno’s Long Shadow Giorano Bruno (1548-1600) o Domincan friar, advocate of Copernican thought. o Belief in other beings that exist in the universe in other worlds. o These beliefs get him in trouble with the Catholic Church. o One of the last people to be executed by the church under the accusations of heresy during the Inquisition. Mathematics is very, very magical Mnemonics (the science of memory) o Memory Wheel o To the Catholic Church, Bruno’s memory tools and science of memory seems all too close to magic. One of the things Bruno is teaching his students to remember is the order of the planets according to the Copernican system; trouble with the Catholic Church. STORYLINE: - Bruno has to flee the authorities of the Church and of his own Dominican - Life on the run: Bruno travels as a fugitive but finds ways to make money through teaching what he knows. - The French king, who finds Bruno as brilliant, employs Bruno as a spy by sending him to the English court. Thinking that a charismatic, knowledgeable person will be embraced by the Elizabethan court.
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- Debate with Oxford University Professors: Bruno gets in a debate with Oxford Professors over the Copernican system, and gets laughed out of the debate (somewhat arrogant, poor Latin, strange beliefs, etc). - The English pay Bruno more than the French so that the English can use him as a spy against France. - Ultimately though, because Bruno is such a strange, arrogant character, he gets kicked out of the country. - Bruno heads back to Rome/the Vatican. - On the way, Bruno stops in Venice to make money, and educates students whose real desire is to learn how to raise devils. This gets him in trouble again with the Venetian Inquisitors. Arrested and sent to Rome. The Ash Wednesday Supper Cardinal Bellarmino/Bellarmine o Cardinal who decides the fate of Bruno. Thought: The world will be better off without a troublesome Bruno Campo de Fiori o The plaza where Bruno is executed. SIGNIFICANCE: - Bruno’s execution: burning at the stake. One of the last. - One of the last, because Bruno’s execution was cruel (tongue is nailed to the stake, because Bruno was shouting blasphemous and heretical beliefs to large crowds) - The church issues a public statement saying that Bruno was peacefully hanged elsewhere, while an effigy of Bruno was burned. The public obviously disagrees because they saw Bruno yelling and being nailed to the stake, and this controversy spreads among the people. To this day, information on Bruno and the Church’s cover-up Is hard to find and ambiguous.
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