16. October 29 - The New Science

16. October 29 - The New Science - THE NEW SCIENCE I. II....

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THE NEW SCIENCE I. The Aristotleian World View II. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) III. Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) IV. Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) - Thinking About the Scientific Revolution - How revolutionary was it? - Where does it come from? Relationship between classical and medieval texts and new ideas/information. - How does it come about? The changing role of hands-on experimentation and first-hand eye- witnessing. - How does it extend the “crisis of authority” in early modern Europe? o Relationship between new ideas between emerging new ideas and existing social and scientific structures. I. The Aristotleian World View Much of the early developments of science is all based on Aristotle’s view of physics and the universe. Cosmology o Sphere of fixed stars (i.e. crystalline sphere) o Geostatic and more or less geometric Geocentric model (ASTR 100) “Sphere of the Prime Mover”, the original source of movement that is causing the planets to orbit on physical “spheres” around the universe. o Catholic Medieval Addition: God is the “Prime Mover” of the Celestial Spheres. Texts o Aristotle’s Physics (c. 350 BC) THE basis for whatever astronomy is taught in the middle Ages and early modern ages of the west. Lasts well into the 16 th century o Ptolemy’s Almagest (c. 147/148 AD) Most complete manual for astronomy and astrology. Data for calculations. Attitudes Popular attitudes of the time period o Man can never know the Heavens except through models and theories o Math may be very, very bad. Why?: The association between mathematics and magical power. Man’s own imperfection might taint mathematics, and be a vain and evil attempt to replicate/understand God’s perfect mathematics. o God is perfect, circles are perfect, everything is circles God created everything in a circle. o “Saving the Appearances” through epicycles. Accommodating the model with what you see with your eye. Epicycles for the geocentric model instead of thinking that planets orbit in ellipses around the Sun.
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The Cosmological Revolution : Copernicus + Brahe + Kepler + Galileo = Cosmological Revolution II. Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543) -
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2009 for the course HIST 103g taught by Professor Harkness during the Spring '07 term at USC.

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16. October 29 - The New Science - THE NEW SCIENCE I. II....

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