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Unformatted text preview: Fibers of Organizations: People
January 31, 2008 1 Outline
• • • • • Motives and Motivation Models of Adult Development Models of Cultural Behavior Models of Political Behavior Leadership in Organizations 2 Motives and Motivation
• Motives: money, security, making a difference, others……. • Motivation: the set of forces that cause people to choose certain behaviors from among the many alternatives open to them 3 Motivating Employees
• • • • • • • Recognize individual differences Match people to jobs Use goals Individualize rewards Link rewards to performance Check the system for equity Don’t ignore money
4 Models of Development
• Turning Points: people change and those changes impact the organizations
– Every manager should pay attention to the development and satisfaction of the employee. – Employees are assets—people, not buildings and computers, allow organizations to accomplish their missions. – Managing human resources is a matching process, integrating the organization’s goals with employee’s needs
5 Models of Cultural Behavior
• National cultures—the collective mental programming of people in an environment)
– – – – – Power Distance Uncertainty Avoidance IndividualismCollectivism MasculinityFemininity Longterm/ShortTerm Orientation 6 What’s Your Cultural Proficiency?
When times get hard, people often pull apart along lines of race, religion, and nationality. What skills do we need to develop in order to navigate the misunderstandings and mistrust that can accompany diversity? There are six points along the cultural proficiency continuum that indicate how people see and respond to difference (from Cultural Proficiency: A Manual for School Leaders, by R.B. Lindsey, K.N. Robins, R.D. Terrell): • • • • • Cultural destructiveness: See the difference, stomp it out. The elimination of other people’s cultures Cultural incapacity: See the difference, make it wrong. Belief in the superiority of one’s own culture and behavior that disempowers another’s culture. Cultural blindness: See the difference, act like you don’t. Acting as if the cultural differences you see do not matter, or not recognizing that there are differences among and between cultures. Cultural precompetence: See the difference, respond inadequately. Awareness of the limitations of one’s skills or an organization’s practices when interacting with other cultural groups. Cultural competence: See the difference, understand the difference that difference makes. Interacting with other cultural groups using the five essential elements of cultural proficiency: – – – – – Name the differences: Assess culture Claim the differences: Value diversity Reframe the differences: Manage the dynamics of difference Train about differences: Adapt to diversity Change for differences: Institutionalize cultural knowledge • Cultural proficiency: See the differences and respond positively and affirmingly. Esteeming culture, knowing how to learn about individual and organizational culture, and interacting effectively in a variety of cultural environments.
7 An Example: EastWest Differences 8 Models of Political Behavior
• Locals versus Cosmopolitans • Career Types 9 Leadership in Organizations
• • • Administration or Leadership? Do Organizations Need Leaders? Leadership for the Times 10 Need for Leaders
• All government programs require leaders to see that their objectives are attained; indeed leadership is often the single most critical factor in the success or failure of a program • Leadership is needed to cope with the diversity of problems and multiple constituencies that contemporary government agencies face • Potential leaders are always present—the question is how can schools and organizations awaken and empower them and then create conditions that allow them to rise to the top
11 Leadership 12 ...
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- Spring '07