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Unformatted text preview: Fabric of Organizations: Forces Forces
January 29, 2008 Session Outline Session Definitions Forces
Society and the Assessment of Society Organizations: efficiency, effectiveness, and society and Information and Intelligence in Information Organizations Organizations Decision Making Models Six Models Decision Making in the Real World Changing the Organization Definitions Definitions Threads—intellectual evolution of Threads—intellectual organization theory (last Thursday) organization Fabric—how organizational theorists Fabric—how explain the ways in which organization (today) weave those threads to form organizations threads Fibers—how organizations use Fibers—how people (Thursday) people Assessment: Efficiency, Effectiveness, and Social Effectiveness, Efficiency: ability to complete Efficiency: tasks using the fewest resources possible resources Effectiveness: ability to Effectiveness: complete tasks, period complete Social: ability to appear relevant Social: and useful in achieving a social mission mission Assessment Assessment Information Information Knowledge: what changes us Data: meaningless point in time meaningless when not considered in context when Information: data, passed data, through a person’s mind that becomes meaningful becomes Wisdom: profound profound understanding of one’s place in the universe the Information Information One of the key messages of this One chapter is that dramatic changes in the cost of obtaining, processing, and transmitting information are impacting public administration. At the heart of this revolution are accelerating and compounding trends in computer technology and communications technology. Information Information Public managers spend most of their time Public accumulating and assimilating information. They need information about their They environment—past, present and future. environment—past, They also need information about the They problems that their agencies face, the available alternatives, the probable effects of those alternatives, the internal actions required for implementation, the outputs produced, and the expenditures required. produced, Decision Making Models Decision Cost-Benefit Analysis Multiobjectives Models Decision Analysis Systems Analysis Operations Research Nominal Group Techniques Real-World Cost Benefit Analysis Cost In an era of scarcity, interest in In weighing cost against benefits rises rises Measurement Measurement of costs and benefits benefits The distributional impacts The discount factor, and The decision rules Multiobjectives Models Multiobjectives Recognition that there are Recognition multiple objectives in the policy and administrative processes Need Need to calculate the relative importance or weight of various objectives objectives Decision Analysis Decision Recognition that a decision is Recognition not viewed as isolated because today’s decision depends on the ones we shall make tomorrow Systems Analysis Systems This approach forces us to look This at problems as systems; assemblies of interdependent components; 4 basic steps: Problem formulation Modeling Analysis and optimization Implementation Operations Research Operations Here the scope of decision Here making is narrower: making Concerned Concerned with problems that can be represented by mathematical models to be optimized models with relatively small Concerned Concerned problems problems Nominal Group Techniques Nominal Advantages— bring together broader perspectives for bring defining the problem, more knowledge and information, easier to implement (buy-in) (buy-in) time consuming, expensive, lead to time compromise solutions or reduction of valuable dissenting opinions (groupthink), no clear focus for responsibility if things go wrong responsibility Disadvantages— Nominal Group Techniques Nominal When to use a group— problem is uncertain, complex, or has problem the potential for conflict; requires interagency or intergroup requires cooperation; cooperation; problem and its solution have problem important personal and organizational consequences; significant, but not immediate significant, deadline pressures, widespread acceptance and commitment are critical to successful implementation critical Decision Making in the Real World World Decision Making in Times of Decision Crisis Crisis Biases in Decision Making Decision Making in Times of Crisis Crisis Demonstrated that decision making Demonstrated is a very human affair involving far more than objective analysis more Important decisions often made by Important groups, not individuals groups, Not an entirely rational process Some participants more rational than Some others others Real limitations to applying a Real rigorous approach to every facet of a problem problem Biases in Decision Making Biases Bounded rationality—people —people have limits or boundaries on how rational they can be how Satisficing—decision makers —decision choose the first solution alternative that satisfies minimal decision criteria decision Biases in Decision Making Biases Seeing only one dimension of Seeing uncertainty, uncertainty, Giving too much weight to Giving readily available or recent information information Being overconfident Ignoring the laws of Ignoring randomness randomness Being reluctant to audit and Being improve decision making Changing the Organization Changing Resisting Reorganization Fragmentation of Accountability Bureaucratization Red Tape Reduced Performance ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2009 for the course PPD 225 taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07