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Unformatted text preview: Governance, Policy, and Governance, Policy, and Management Outline Outline
► ► I. What is Public Administration? II. Why is Public Administration Difficult to Define? III. Public Administrators A. Who Are They? B. What Do They Do? C. What Should They Know? ► ► IV. Public Administration and Business A. How is PA Similar to Business? B. How is PA Different From Business? ► V. What are the Key Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice? I. What is Public I. What is Public Administration?
► Denhardt: Public Administration is concerned with the management of public programs ► Wilson: Public Administration is the detailed and systematic execution of public law (administrative study is to discover first what government can properly and successfully do, and how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and the least possible cost either of money or of energy) Wilson, continued Wilson, continued
► Administration is a field of business ► Administration lies outside the proper sphere of politics ► Administration must be at all points sensitive to public opinion ► Do you see any problems with any of the above statements? I. What is Public I. What is Public Administration?
► Fesler and Kettl: Public Administration includes the shaping of policy on the way up, execution of policy after it has been made, and as a necessary part of the execution, decision making about policy matters on the way down ► Simon et al: In its broadest sense, administration can be defined as the activities of groups cooperating to accomplish common goals. I. What is Public I. What is Public Administration?
► Dimock and Dimock: In simple terms, administration is securing cooperation in order to get the work of the world accomplished . . .As a career, administration is an exciting challenge, for it calls on many aspects of a man’s nature and abilities and applies them to sticky social problems. which resources are marshaled and then used to cope with the problems facing a political community ► Starling: Public Administration is the process by I. What is Public I. What is Public Administration?
►Which of these definitions best captures your personal definition of PA? feel is the most valuable in promoting the field of PA? ►Which of these definitions do you II. Why is Public Administration II. Why is Public Administration Difficult to Define? ► Rosenbloom: Central problem of Public Administration theory is that is derived from 3 distinct approaches of what PA is and each emphasizes different values, organizational structure, and views of individuals Rosenbloom, continued Rosenbloom, continued
► Managerial (what PA ought to be)grew out of civil service reforms; PA was to be geared toward the maximization of effectiveness, efficiency and economy ► efficiencymost important value ► structurehierarchical, functional specialization, jobs merit based, politically neutral competence; individualimpersonal view, individual worker is turned into an appendage, to a mechanical means of production Rosenbloom, continued Rosenbloom, continued
► Political (what PA was in practice)PA is a problem in political theory, the fundamental problem in a democracy is responsibility to popular control; the responsibility and responsiveness of the administrative agencies and the bureaucracies to the elected officials is of central importance in a government based increasingly on the exercise of discretionary power by the agencies of administration; ► ► against faction; political participation by a variety of interested parties ► Individualviewed as part of an aggregate group Responsiveness, representativeness, and accountability through elected officials to the citizenry are key values Structureadvantages of pluralism; enable faction to compete Rosenbloom, continued Rosenbloom, continued
► Legaladministrative law, judicalization of PA, and constitutional laws are three components ► Procedural due process, individual substantive rights, equity are key values ► Structuredesigned to facilitate the use of adversarial procedure; independence of hearing officer critical; ► Individualviewed as a unique person in a unique set of circumstances Rosenbloom, continued Rosenbloom, continued
► The three approaches cannot be synthesized because they are an integral part of a political culture that emphasizes the separation of powers rather than integrated political action; each associated with a different branch of government: ► Managerial (executive) implementation of rules; ► Political (legislative) making rules representativeness; ► Legal (judicial) questions concerning application/execution of rules Insights from the Founding Fathers Insights from the Founding Fathers
► Federalist Papers No. 10 & No. 51 Hamilton/Federalists: strong, centralized government staffed by men of wealth, class and education; reflects distrust of the people Jefferson/AntiFederalists: saw administration as linked to the issue of extending democracy more decentralized approach with controls on the executive Impact? III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► PAs of the future: A. Who Are They? operate in a world shaped by high public expectations, publicprivate and intergovernmental collaboration, technological complexity, cultural diversity, feel of home, not government bureaucracy, III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
A. Who Are They continued encouraging interaction between employees, no excessive staff, immediate products, cutting red tape, quick service delivery: variety, fragmentation, and brevity information age: quality and innovation are chief goals; need ability to synthesize the data in order to make effective decisions; have to be team players ► Which of these factors are you most concerned about as you become an administrator? III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► B. What Do They Do?
► Interpersonal—relationships with others a. figureheadhandling ceremonial and symbolic activities b. leaderrelationships with subordinates, including motivation, communication, encouragement, and influence c. liaisondevelopment of information sources both inside and outside an organization d. politicianactive attempts to shape environment III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► B. What Do They Do, continued
► Informational—managers as nerve center of the organization e. monitorseeking current information from many sources f. disseminatortransmits current information to others, both inside and outside of the organization g. spokespersonofficial statement about the agency to people outside the organization III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► B. What Do They Do, continued
► Decisional—information is only a means to an endthe decision h. entrepreneurinitiation of change—willingness to scan broader environments for approaches that suit their objectives, not captives of sectoral conventions, carve out new and personal missions for their organization, they are opportunistic, taking advantage of available resources, willing to take risks, have a bias toward action i. disturbance handlerresolving conflict subordinates, departments, citizens III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► B. What they do: Decisional, continued j. resource allocatordecisions about how to allocate people, time, equipment, budget k. negotiatorformal negotiations and informal bargaining l. policy makerall organizations have policies that are statements of goals and objectives ► Which of these areas are you most/least comfortable with? III. Public Administrators III. Public Administrators
► C. What Should They Know?
► They need to know the process by which public policies are conceived and implemented; and the political, institutional, and sociotechnological setting in which this policy process takes place Political knowledge alone is not enough, they must also have political skills Need skills to analyze and interpret political, social, and economic trends Need skills to evaluate the consequences of administrative action, and skills to persuade and bargain ► ► ► I. I. Public Administration and Business
Why should you be able to discuss the similarities and/or differences between public administration and business? I. I. Public Administration and Business ► A. How is PA Similar to Business? ► Both sectors are concerned with issues of organization design, the allocation of resources and the management of people I. I. Public Administration and Business ► B. How is PA Different From Business? Work in public organizations is distinguished by its pursuit of democratic values and this affects nearly everything done as a public manager. I. I. Public Administration and Business
► B. How is PA Different From Business?
Denhardt: Ambiguity, pluralistic decision making, and visibility all stem from pursuing public purposes Responsibility in PA is blurreddifferent structures Incentive to satisfy parties that provides the resourcesdifferent incentives Public’s right to know what goes on/external forces different settings Produce profits versus produce public good different purposes V. What are the Key Issues in Public V. What are the Key Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice?
► A. Supposed dichotomy between politics and administration Policies debated and decided by politicians and carried out by a political neutral, professional bureaucracy Ensuring accountability who is administrative agency acceptable to? V. What are the Key Issues in V. What are the Key Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice?
► B. Potential conflict between bureaucracy and democracy Individual equal participation against the need to bring large numbers of individuals together Individuality vs. group or organization Equality vs. hierarchy Participation/involvement vs. top down decision making authority V. What are the Key Issues in Public V. What are the Key Issues in Public Administration Theory and Practice?
► C. Tension between efficiency and responsiveness Getting things done as quickly as possible, at least cost; versus remaining attentive to the demands of the citizenry ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/21/2009 for the course PPD 225 taught by Professor Lewis during the Spring '07 term at USC.
- Spring '07
- The Federalist Papers