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Unformatted text preview: as political activity Who: voters, interest groups, legislators, voters, presidents, bureaucrats, judges presidents, How: ID problem, set agenda, formulate policy ID proposals, legitimate policies, implement policies, evaluate policies evaluate Implications/assumptions: who participates has a critical or determinant impact on the process on
6 3. Group Theory
Public policy as group equilibrium Who: interest groups, their allies in government How: struggle among interest groups with struggle legislature/executive as referee to manage group conflict and establish rules of the game conflict Implications/assumptions: groups will always groups join to press for particular issues, all interests will have an opportunity for representation have
7 4. Elite Theory
Public policy as elite preference Who: elites that have power, ability to allocate elites value value How: implementation of the preferences and implementation values of the governing elite; public officials merely carry out policies decided on by the elites merely Implications/assumptions: public is apathetic public elites agree upon norms; political action is merely symbolic; protects the status quo symbolic;
8 5. Rationalism
Public policy as maximum social gain Who: decision makers (all social, political, Who decision economic values sacrificed or achieved by a policy choice) irrespective of dollar amount (Bentham, Mills) (Bentham, How: select policy alternative(s) that allows gains select to society to exceed costs by the greatest amount to Implications/assumptions: assumes that the assumes values preferences of the society as a whole can be known and weighted known
9 6. Incrementalism
Public policy as variations on the...
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- Spring '07